Ever since industrial revolution surface, first wave in Europe from 1760 to 1820 and 1840, or at the end of 18th century, or beginning 19th century, thermo-mechanical energy converter known as: External Combustion Engines (ECE) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) been introduced to run transportation: on land, on water, and through the air. Since then, people were dreaming to travel to far-off countries to see for themselves the scenery of the beautiful distant lands, and meet various cultures of people available on the blue planet. The dreams were blossomed in the heart of many earth citizens across the globe to ride: car, train, ship, and airplane never diminish with the passage of time.
Two technologies have been competing ever since in market place, each perfected to fulfill demand. They are: development of Mean Of Transportation, shorten: MOT, to carry people from home to the dream country to see the land and experience respected culture, and development of Information and Communication Technology, abbreviated: ICT. The latter also provided with relevant gadgetry to bring the beautiful scenery of far off land with its culture back home for people to see; both are moving at rapid pace.
The problem using MOT, is environmental pollution introduced by thermo-mechanical energy converter to the earth environment: on land, on water, and in the air due to the burning of various fuel, like: solid (coal), liquid (petroleum), and gaseous (natural gases). Such a pollution had been around ever since the outbreak of industrial revolution, when steam engine (ECE) were used to run: factories, industries, railway networks, etc., burning solid fuels to liberate “heat” by burning coal for conversion into “mechanical energy”. Then arrived a more efficient ICE burning liquid fuel and gaseous fuel also to get “heat” for conversion into “mechanical energy”, to run transportation on land, on water, and through the air, not excluding factories, industries.
There were times when ECE were predominantly used to power steam locomotives to pull passenger and freight trains. As soon as ICE appear and been perfected, it replaces ECE to run most of land transportation, like train, automobiles, motorbikes, etc., crowding roads and streets in big cities. Similar energy converters also been used for water transports, sailing: canals, rivers, lakes, seas, and oceans; crowding them with various boats. With advent ICE, air transportation been introduced in the United States of America, and ever since the blue planet were crowded with many type aircraft, run by reciprocating-engines, jet-engines, and turbofan-engines.
Number of thermo-mechanical energy converter were rising quickly across the globe with time, burning: solid fuel, liquid fuel, and gaseous fuel, to get “heat” for conversion into “mechanical energy” in great demand by various transportation as well as industry. There established a stream of solid fuel, liquid fuel, and gaseous fuel from the belly of earth migrate to its surface done by man, to be burned inside various thermo-mechanical energy converter to get mechanical energy, and releasing exhaust gases to earth atmosphere around the planet polluting human living environment. The burning of fuels: solid, liquid, and gaseous, in each thermo-mechanical energy converter causing unfriendly carbon dioxide release and other toxic material polluting blue planet environment: atmosphere, land and water, already reach beyond health limit on many places on earth surface, causing people concern.
High concentration carbon dioxide along with other toxic gases cause earth air temperature over planet surface to raise, due to radiation from the sun reflected by earth surface cannot escape to space blocked by layers of carbon dioxide and pollutants hanging in the air. Except polluting the earth environment, the number of thermo-mechanical energy converter on service proportional with number of the mode of land transportation in drives, while the latter rising steadily with time around the globe also in correspondence with number of vehicles produced by all countries on the blue planet. That mean means the number of Internal Combustion Engine in service every day proportionally with number of the various mean transportation on: land, water, and through the air.
On entering the 21st century, already millions of ICE of various made type and size roaming roads and streets in cities in all countries the world over. Millions of similar engine already power boats of various make type and sizes including cargo vessels and cruise liners in various to clog: rivers, lakes, seas, and ocean, creating congestions around every bays and seaports. Meanwhile millions of such engines fly aircraft of various make type and size to swarm air environment around the world’s metropolis across the globe. There are now over 1 (one) billion ICE in service on busy hours of every working days around the world. Each ICE pumps exhaust gases into the atmosphere to pollute air inhaled to human lungs. Bear in mind, the earth inhabitant is now around 7 (seven) billion people; how swift ICE gain number one billion, since outbreak of industrial revolution in Europe.
A New Breed Aircraft
To get rid environmental pollution threatening human life on earth. So do the traffic congestion by various mean of transportation on: roads, streets, which quickly builds up in cities; also same various: boat, vessel, and liner, crowding the world’s waterways; and aircrafts variety make type, size, to swarm earth atmosphere around the globe. They are coming to our life due to the steady rising number of thermo-mechanical energy converter to run the various transport of various make, type, size, and country around blue the planet, and a solution has to be found. The latter must take into account access to the various places on earth surface, considering topographical challenge of terrain and water; also to switch mind from “think small” to “think big”. The result is the introduction of “Ultra Large Torus Rotary-wing Aircraft”, abbreviated: “ULTRA” simply write “Ultra” (Pesawat Gelang Sayap-putar Amat Besar, disingkat PGSAB); or “A New Breed Aircraft”, shorten NBA (Pesawat-terbang Biakan Baru, disingkat P2B); and later named: “The New Millennium Aircraft”, shorten NMA (Pesawat-terbang Milenium Baru, disingkat PMB).
This paper is about a new breed aircraft called ultra for application in not distant future. It is about a new breed aircraft to carry “a very heavy load” with a very large volume”. On entering the 21st century, demand for heavier air-carrier already envisaged with continuous rise of international trade. Ocean going transportations are now leaning to developing bigger cargo ships and cruise liners around the world. Bigger cargo ships are now in demand ferrying: coal, iron ore, minerals, and the like, with necessary harbors of transshipment for handling merchandise from land mode transport to ocean going vessel, and the other way round. Big tankers are also in demand to ferry liquids like: water, palm oil, etc.; also energy: crude oil, LNG, etc. Demand for ocean going cruise liner for passengers on the rise in various part of the world entering he third millennium.
The problem to ferry merchandise with sea transportation inside container ships, is the need to have harbor for transshipment of consignment with its handling facilities. The latter is necessary to transfer consignment from land mode transportation to sea mode transportation on departure, and the other way round on arrival. Such handling facility also necessary for raw material: iron ore, coal, etc., with ocean going vessels, or liquid: fuel, palm oil, etc., ferry by tankers. The process of transshipment takes time, and become time lost in transportation. Other problem with ocean going transportation is the existence of shallow and narrow water along a variety sea line around the world, such as: straits or canals. Such routes limits the size and the drought of vessels allowed sailing, that mean limit also amount of consignment. Narrow water limit the size of a vessel allowed pass through, while shallow water limit the drought a vessel allowed sailing. Narrow water and shallow water, are the two main obstacles a vessel allowed sailing to ferry consignments between islands and continents, which spell into more time spent on sea and ocean transportation.
With advent of millennium aircraft, afore said constraints is eliminated because it flies. Ultra or the new breed aircraft takes off from “land base” of departure of a country to other “land base” of same country or other country, to ferry merchandise inside containers, or raw materials, or liquids, even passengers. It is a kind of “Giant Aircraft Carrier” on earth, abbreviated: GAC. The latter will ferry “very heavy cargo” as well as “thousands of passengers” from one to another across the globe. On entering the third millennium, it is time to migrate moving very heavy load in very large volume, such: commodities inside containers; or raw materials, crude, etc.; or palm oil, LNG, water, etc.; by way of GAC. Large number of travelers be carried by “flying hotel and restaurants”, another variation of GAC for moving large number people through the air. Having GAC in service for cargo and passengers across the globe, obstacles encountered by ocean going ships mentioned earlier, or topographical obstacles encountered by every surface transport on land, as well as shallow and draught for water transportation, can be avoided with ease, leaving only a bow or curve in air being travelled to save time and energy.
The new breed aircraft capable to ferry passengers remain sitting in cars, or merchandises in truck containers, to get rid traffic congestion on roads or streets connecting metropolis with the surroundings. The new breed aircraft also capable be turn into air-ferry to move passengers insider cars, or merchandises inside truck containers, to free roads or streets connecting a metropolis with its hinterland on busy hours of working days.
With ultra to acts for air-ferry serving metropolis across the globe, one only need to drive from home to nearby air-ferry “land base”, popularly known as “air-hub”. Also one need to drive from destination “air-hub” to his/her workplace or office, while the travel from his/her nearest “air-hub” to destination “air-hub” be borne by new breed aircraft designed and built for air-ferry. For such short haul, ultra works as an air-ferry will be able to compete with all mode of surface transportation in time and convenience.
Such air-ferry will become the opposite of a subway services in modern metropolis of our world. With subway service, one need to go down on staircases or escalators to catch passing trains underground, while with air-ferry people will picked up right from the nearby “air-hub”, and ferry them by air to the next “air-hub” of his/her destination.
With the introduction of new breed aircraft, planning and construction for new harbor for transshipment of merchandise, or to ferry for passengers and vehicle from an island to another or continent and the other way round can be reviewed. This will lead to preservation of the precious natural environment inherited from nature on land and water; this does not just on surface but also depth of various water-bodies, like: canals, rivers, lakes, sea, and ocean. The atmosphere around the earth will be free from pollution, if the new aircraft powered by high capacity batteries, fuel cells, and energy coming from a nuclear fusion reaction.
The new breed aircraft can be an alternative solution to costly undertaking building roads and streets with multilayer flyovers and interchanges crisscrossing big cities and metropolis for purpose getting rid of traffic congestion; also to keep up cities with the annual population rise. With advent new breed aircraft serve as air-ferry, afore mention undertaking can be eliminated from planning stage, lead to the preservation of natural living environment on earth surface granted by mother nature conserved.
The idea of a new breed aircraft came to mind with the desire to get rid of traffic congestion in big cities and metropolis with “air-ferry” carrying people remain seated in their cars. Fact has shown, that the current largest fixed-wing aircraft fuselage already approaching 100 meters in length. It is not easy to construct any longer aircraft fuselage without the provision of bigger airport with longer and wider runway for take-off and landing.
But, by transforming aircraft’s fuselage from a straight line to a circle, or from tube to torus, then migration from fixed-wing to rotary-wing, twin rotors counter-rotating in the same horizontal plane, there seems a room to rise aircraft dimension. With the implementation of magnetic levitation technology, the new breed aircraft mighty have rotors bearings be placed anywhere between center of rotor rotation and their peripheries. By conducting research on the construction of a very large dynamic flying structure along with relevant technology, “ultra”, or “a new breed aircraft”, also called “a millennium aircraft”, could soon become reality.
The millennium aircraft is that sort of aircraft to take-off and landing vertically. It is new type flying machine having “doughnut” or “torus body” shape where rotors are installed both in the inner as well as outer circumference of aircraft’s body. Instead of a straight line connecting its cockpit with tail like the fixed-wing aircraft, ultra has circle so the two ends meet to create a ring. With such an aircraft fuselage design, two aircraft rotors to be in operation: one rotor rotates in the inner circumference of the aircraft’s fuselage, while another in the outer circumference of the fuselage. These rotors are counter-rotating, they have same center of rotation, and occupy the same horizontal plane. The speed of each rotor must be set such a way, so the counter-rotating torques created by each rotor cancel each other to get rid aircraft’s fuselage from spinning. To maintain aircraft’s external rotor tip exceeding the speed of sound, the rotor rotation must be limited not to exceed 400 rpm. The inner rotor turns faster than the outer rotor to counter torque created by the latter.
With multi blades and counter-rotating rotors in place, the new breed aircraft will take-off and landing vertically from “land base” built for the aircraft purpose. Another advantage having torus fuselage is the easy access to aircraft fuselage from all direction making loading or unloading of merchandise easily done, so do the passengers get onboard the aircraft or the other way round. With 360 degrees access to aircraft, stampede of passengers on entering or leaving the aircraft completely be evaded, and shorten passenger’s boarding time. Passenger can board the aircraft while driving their car for easy boarding and drive out. Similar with truck containers along with merchandise inside be ferried by ultra for easy get on board the aircraft, or leave aircraft the other way round.
With blade’s pitch and angle with the horizontal are controllable, the new breed aircraft will easily leave the ground. Having pair ducted propellers run by electric motor on top of the aircraft’s fuselage for propulsion, the millennium aircraft will easily maneuver in flight to get to destination. The new breed aircraft is supposed to fly with medium speed of 500 km per hour.
Ultra does not need conventional airport with take-off and landing strip, but it requires “land base for take-off and landing”, known as: ultradrome. An ultradrome can be established anywhere on islands or continents close to manufacturing centers, where commodities being produced for export, and been packed into containers for consignment. Also near various mines, where raw materials like: iron, copper, aluminum, etc., been extracted from belly of earth; or: oil refinery, smelter, etc.
Ultradrome can be built in vicinity of world’s metropolis, where a new breed aircraft serve as “sky-liner” or “air-liner” to ferry thousands of passenger on board the new breed aircraft like staying in hotels with restaurants. The sky-liner will travel from one to another city, or from one to another country on islands or continents, for business or holidays across the various region of the blue planet, or even to make a journey around the world in several days.
The millennium aircraft may be established giant measuring hundreds of meters core diameter, or even over. It will become a very large aircraft ever, or giant air-carrier, designed and built to ferry commodities, or raw materials, such: mineral ores, crude oil, water, etc., to take the place of ocean going ships, vessels, or ships, to get marine pollution down as stipulated by the bio-environment conditions of the blue planet. The new breed aircraft also established for passengers for sky-liner or airliner much like a flying hotel with restaurants to compete with large ocean liners now in operation around the world.
With emergence of new breed aircraft in various dimension, such as: small, medium, large, very large, and ultra large or giant, with good combination and right number across the globe to ferry commodity and passenger as requested by the call of time. The number of transportation of various mode: on land, on water, and through the air, remain making use thermo-mechanic energy converter with their new generation remain polluting living environment around the globe will be limited to number stipulated by allowed health limit of the blue planet.
The New Breed Aircraft’s Dimensions
For the purpose of introduction, it is necessary to begin with a new breed aircraft having the Main Dimensions, shorten MD, as proposed in Figure-I.
There are three components of the new breed aircraft main dimensions in general, that is to say:
a – The torus core diameter (m),
b – The diameter of aircraft’s fuselage (m), and
c – The rotor’s blade length (m).
While for the new breed aircraft of this proposal they are as follows:
a = 1000 m,
b = 200 m, and
c = 150 m.
The said aircraft dimension to be reached in stages, beginning from: LTRA (Large Torus Rotary-wing Aircraft) the smallest of aircraft’s family, be followed with MLTRA (Medium Large Torus Rotary-wing Aircraft) a lower medium, then VLTRA (Very Large Torus Rotary-wing Aircraft) an upper medium, be ended with ULTRA (Ultra Large Torus Rotary-wing Aircraft) the largest of the family.
For research and development purpose, smaller size of new breed aircraft for models be introduced to get the new breed aircraft behavior in flight, such as:
a. 0.5 % of MD for experiments with mechanical bearing,
b. 2 % of MD for experiments with magnetic bearing,
The new breed aircraft fuselage been divided horizontally, and consists of two compartments, the upper part and the lower part. The upper part reserved for the prime source of energy, such: conventional fuel, liquid hydrogen, LNG, batteries, as well as nuclear fuel. All kind of aircraft’s power equipment, such: thermo-mechanical-electric convertors, electric power system and distribution, control board and panels, protections, as well as monitoring systems, etc., are also located in the upper compartment. So do both aircraft’s rotors along with its mechanical or magnetic levitation bearings, motors to turn aircraft rotors mechanical mechanically or by way of linear motor, etc., are also placed in the upper compartment.
The new millennium aircraft’s upper compartment also reserved for the cockpit, from where the aircraft controlled in flight, along with flight control and the respective air navigation system. The new breed aircraft been equipped with Radar System for Collide-Avoidance (RSCA) in flight, as well as Aircraft’s Crash-Avoidance System (ACAS) be placed in the aircraft’s upper compartment.
The lower compartment reserved for payload, such: merchandise, raw material: ores, coal, etc.; or liquid: crude oils, water, etc.; or gaseous: LNG, etc. For a sky liner the lower compartment reserved for passenger cabins and restaurants. For mix payloads, the lower compartment to be divided into commodity zones and passenger areas.
New Breed Aircraft Technology
There are a number of ways thing can fly in the air. Nature has introduced birds with a pair of flapping-wings, while flies and bees making use a pair of vibrating-wings. Man introduced fixed-wings aircrafts with propulsion and rotary-wings helicopters. Which give birth to the four known principle of aircraft’s dynamic flying having wings, known: flapping-wings, vibrating-wings, fixed-wings, and rotary-wings.
The new breed aircraft belongs to rotary-wings aircraft having lift generated like most of the aircraft do, where an airfoil made to advance against a still air. Lift produced depends on airfoil design, angle of attack, and the relative speed of advance. In a rotary-wings aircraft including the new breed aircraft, the aircraft does not need to move against still air to create lift, but the rotor blades need to advance against the still air.
Most rotary-wings aircraft or helicopter has one rotor on top of the aircraft’s fuselage to been accompanied with counter-torque propeller at tail working horizontally to enable the aircraft leaves the ground. Other rotary-wings aircraft been provided with two rotors on top of aircraft’s fuselage: one having single shaft with twin rotors, one rotor on top of the other, counter-rotating without counter-torque propeller at tail. Another a double shafts in tandem on top of the aircraft’s fuselage, lay side by side at the same horizontal plane; or at a different horizontal plane, each rotor turn in same rotor rotation, or counter rotating, without counter-torque propeller at tail.
The new breed aircraft belongs to rotary-wings aircraft with a single axis of rotation, called: Center of Rotors Rotation abbreviated: CRR, or the aircraft’s center point. It is equipped with two rotors, one rotor lay inside of the torus fuselage known as: “inner rotor”, while the other rotor lay outside torus fuselage known as: “outer rotor”. Both rotors occupy the same horizontal plane, but counter-rotating to get rid aircraft’s body from spinning. A CRR is just a virtual point, because one cannot establish any mechanical link between aircraft’s fuselage and rotors to transfer the aircraft’s weight at that point, as one can find in most conventional helicopters.
If one walks away from the center point or CRR as the rotor rotating, he/she inscribe a virtual circle. The further left CRR, the larger the diameter of the circle will be. When one reach the inner torus diameter, he/she will arrive at the Inner Torus Radius, abbreviated: ITR, of the new breed aircraft’s fuselage. If one goes further, he/she will get at the outer torus diameter, called the Outer Torus Radius, abbreviated: OTR, of aircraft’s fuselage. Both ITR and OTR are the two important positions of the new breed aircraft’s fuselage, and because those points the new breed aircraft’s weight may be transferred to both rotors by mechanical or other means.
To establish mechanical or other mean of contact between new breed aircraft’s fuselage with its rotors, a combination of “ring and lining”, or pair of “ring and lining” are necessary: one to be located at ITR, and the other at OTR of the new breed aircraft’s fuselage, as seen in Figure-II. The rings been built out of hard steel for strength. To improve ring resistance against torque load introduced by rotor blades on take-off and fly to destination, every ring have to be design with right diameter and relevant thickness to allow each ring hollow out.
A number of blades connected to the inner rotor ring horizontally pointing toward the new breed aircraft CRR. The same number blades also connected to the outer rotor ring horizontally, but pointing against CRR. Each aircraft’s rotor blade, either be attached to the inner rotor ring as well as the outer rotor ring, must have two degrees of freedom: one along the blade’s length for pitching, and with respect to the horizontal plane for rolling.
When the aircraft rotor turns, every blade will generate a lift. The inner rotor lift will be the sum of lifts generated by all blades connected to the inner ring. Similarly, the outer rotor lift will be the sum of all lifts generated by blades connected to the outer ring. The new breed aircraft’s lift will be the sum of lifts generated by the inner and the outer rotor ring, constitute the new breed aircraft’s or ultra’s lift for the take-off from ground.
The inner rotor turns in one direction, while the outer rotor turns in the opposite direction to establish a pair of counter-rotating new breed aircraft rotors. The speed of every rotor rotation must be set in such a way to allow the counter-acting torque generated by each rotor perfectly equalizes each other. By maintaining these counter-acting action balance each other in real time all the way during the aircraft flight to destination, the new breed aircraft’s fuselage will never spin to one, or another direction.
The Technology of Wight Transfer
There are technologies by which a new breed aircraft can transfer weight of its fuselage to rotors, that is to say: “contact transfer”, and “contactless transfer”. With either by way, ring lining pair is necessary been placed in the inner torus along ITR as well as the outer torus along OTR of new breed aircraft. With contact transfer technology, the space between ring and its lining filled with liquid lubricant to get rid mechanical friction causing material to erode and the loss of energy. This give birth to Mechanical Transfer Technology with Lubricant, shorten MTT&L. With contactless transfer technology, the space between ring and its lining filled with magnetic field, giving: Magnetic Field Transfer Technology, shorten MFTT. There are two technology available for new breed aircraft to transfer its fuselage weight to both rotors, as follows:
a. The Mechanical Transfer Technology with Lubricant
Figure-III is the illustration of a pair of “ring and lining” of MTT&L for a new breed aircraft to let the new breed aircraft’s weight been transferred to both rotors, also known as: “mechanical bearing” with liquid lubrication. As one can see from the drawing, there has to be a lubrication “room” between each ring and its lining, to enable the lubricant get into the space to get rid mechanical friction between the fast moving part or ring with the stationary lining as well as the loss of energy.
There are in fact two lubricant layers separating every ring from its lining: the upper lubricant layer and the lower lubricant layer. These lubricant layers, except separating the fast moving part from its stationary to evade the physical contact between them; also work as medium of weight transfer from the new breed aircraft’s fuselage and to both rotors. In this way, the new breed’s aircraft’s inner lining called ITR and the outer lining called OTR, become the points of contact between the new breed aircraft’s fuselage with its rotors.
To enhance lubrication function to separate the aircraft’s fast moving parts with its stationaries to evade friction and loss of energy, lubrication pressure must be raised to certain level. The latter leads to a complicated lubrication system design and construction along with the necessary sealing etc., to get rid lubricant leakage. This become the disadvantage of using LMTT for the new breed aircraft, because it is impossible to maintain a high pressure liquid inside each pair of ring and lining as shown in Figure-III leakage free. A high pressure put into an open lubrication system will inevitably incur the loss of large quantity of the precious liquid.
The other disadvantage implementing MTT&L for the new breed aircraft by way pairs of ring and lining along with liquid lubricant in between the fast moving parts and their stationaries, is to put aircraft’s rotors into rotation by mechanical mean. The power has to come from two independent prime movers, being transferred by two sets of shaft systems along with the required gears being delivered directly to each rotor ring of the new breed aircraft.
The challenge implementing MTT&L for the new breed aircraft lies in the effectiveness mechanical power coming from two independent prime movers may be orchestrated to turn counter rotating rotors of a new breed aircraft, and the establishment efficient high pressure lubrication system in spaces between the high speed moving part or rotor with its lining or stationary.
b. The Magnetic Field Transfer Technology
Figure-IV shows a pair MFTT “ring and lining” for the new breed aircraft to transfer its weight from fuselage to both rotors. Here magnetic field been used to get rid problems raised by MTT&L. Here rotor rings will levitate inside magnetic linings to get rid physical contact between the fast moving parts and their stationeries by varying magnetic field strength, and is known as: “magnetic bearing”. In latter technology, magnetic field would take the place of liquid lubricant to transfer aircraft’s weight from fuselage to aircraft’s rotors: first from aircraft’s linings to magnetic fields, and then from magnetic fields to aircraft’s rotor rings, as seen in the drawing. And hence pair of “magnetic levitation ring inside the lining” been born for the new breed aircraft. Currently magnetic levitation technology undergoing research now in developed countries for application in transportation of various mode, among them:
1. Electro-Magnetic Suspension (EMS)
2. Electro-Dynamic Suspension (EDS)
3. Superconducting Magnetic Levitation (SML)
Having magnetic field in the spaces between rings and their linings, a new breed aircraft will be able to get rid unwanted physical contact between rings and their linings, or fast moving parts with their stationaries to avoid mechanical friction causing erosion of materials and the unintended loss of energy. With implementation of magnetic levitation technology, the new breed aircraft’s weight be transferred to both rotors, first: from the linings to magnetic fields, and second by the latter to each ring of the aircraft’s rotors. The ring levitation inside its lining will be controlled and monitored in real time in a precise range of tolerance by digital electronic system. The position of each ring inside its lining done by varying the ampere-turn of magnetic field strength of coils involved by combine action.
The Magnetic Field Transfer Technology
To switch the new breed aircraft’s weight transfer from MTT&L to MFTT, means, with aircraft weight transfer make over from lubrication filling the gap to the magnetic field. With MTT&L, there are two liquid layers involve transferring aircraft’s weight to its rotors, i.e.: upper liquid layer and lower liquid layer of liquid lubrication.
These lubrication layers work as “double bearing” for the new breed aircraft rotor rings: “upper liquid bearing” and “lower liquid bearing”; both hand in hand transfer the aircraft’s fuselage weight to both rotor rings. With new breed aircraft’s, weight transfer change from “lubrication” to “magnetic field” same approach will also be followed with the introduction of: “upper magnetic bearing” and “lower magnetic bearing”. Both bearings will dynamically levitate the new breed aircraft rings inside their linings on take-off as well as flight to destination. There should be magnetic field combine actions happen between every pair of ring lining of each rotor to occur in real time, managed by a swift response electronic control system during take-off and flight to destination. The weight be transferred by combine magnetic system from aircraft fuselage to each rotor as the following:
1. The EMS and EDS Combine System
2. The Double SML Combine System
3. The Other Combine System
1. The EMS and EDS Combine System
The idea introduced by MTT&L for new breed aircraft’s to transfer aircraft’s weight from fuselage to its rotors, leads to the development MFTT, or “pair of magnetic lining” or for new breed aircraft. The pair of “electro-magnetic lining and ring”, also called a “Controlled Electro-Magnetic Bearing”, shorten CEMB, with an ultimate purpose to levitate rotor rings inside the linings to transfer the new breed aircraft weight to both rotors. A proposal for CEMB equipped with EDS and EMS combine system to transfer the new breed aircraft weight been illustrated in Figure-V.
A laboratory research need be done from scratch to develop CEMB to get the right design along with electromagnetic component, field arrangement, dimension, field strength, electronic control system, and testing for the new breed aircraft. With CEMB consists of EDS and EMS Combine Systems, the magnetic field will work in unison to levitate each ring inside its lining under the supervision of a given program controlled by a swift response electronic system.
During flight to destinations the EMS system acts as CEMB lower bearing to pulls both the inner and outer rotors rings down, while EDS system acts as CEMB upper bearings to push both the inner and outer rotor rings down. The pull-push combine action of EMS and EDS system will keep the fast moving or speeding inner and outer rotors rings to levitate inside their linings. CEMB use for linings to levitate rings of a new breed aircraft may be called: “magnetic levitation bearing”, or “maglev bearing” for short. By the way, a new breed aircraft’s rotors will be able to get rid a physical contact with their linings to avoid friction and the loss of energy.
The new breed aircraft’s working regime includes: take-off, flying to destination, landing, and parking, has many things to do with EMS and EDS Combine System get rid the physical contact between rings and their linings in the course of time to avoid mechanical friction and loss of energy. That is why the design of CEMBs has to involve those aircraft’s required working regimes also.
Only electric power is needed to maintain magnetic field strength of each CEMB consists of EMS and EDS Combine Systems for a ring to levitate in its lining, much like the one been achieved by German electro-magnetic system (EMS) for train levitation, and Japanese electro-dynamic system (EDS) also for trains levitation. Loss of electricity means loss of magnetic field strength, which lead to the fall of each ring onto its lining causing mechanical friction to emerge and loss of energy.
In case electrical energy loss, the inner and outer rotor rings will directly fall onto their linings creating mechanical friction between fast moving parts with their linings, introducing material erosion and the loss of energy. To get rid of this thing to occur, “horizontal axis rollers” need to be introduced on top and at the bottom of the inner and outer new breed aircraft’s rotor. Such roller be placed along the length of the inner and outer rotor at a carefully selected distance. Such rollers should be available on each aircraft’s rotor with certain clearance. Bear in mind, that the “roller clearance” with each rotor must be “less” than it makes with the “lining”, in order during electrical power loss, rotors will soon get in touch with rollers instead of their linings. Please note, if power loss to CEB occur during the new breed aircraft fly to its destination, the new breed aircraft’s rings will fall onto the “upper rollers”, while if electrical power loss to CEMB happen while the new breed aircraft remain parking on ultradrome, both rings fall onto “bottom rollers”.
Various researches still need to be done on getting information on the aforesaid matter, especially measurement to get the right dimension to establish aircraft’s model that can really fly in the air. Also the cross section of the aircraft rotors, so far accepted to be a circular, and what if a square, or other form of ring cross section, etc.? Or should rotor rollers need be driven by an electrical motor to get it surface match the linear speed of each aircraft’s rotor ring?
During flight, the EMS system will work as maglev’s lower bearings and pull the inner and outer rings together down, while EDS system will act as maglev’s upper bearings to push both inner and outer rings also down. The push-pull action of combine EDS and EMS system will keep all fast moving inner and outer rings to levitate inside the “maglev linings”. This way both NBA’s rotors rings can get rid physical contact with their linings to hinder friction and loss of energy. All working regimes executed by NBA like: take-off, flying, landing, and parking, has anything to do with the combine effort of EMS and EDS system to get rid physical contact between rings and their linings to hinder friction and energy loss. Therefore design of MLL has to cover those important working regimes also.
Only electric power is needed to maintain magnetic field strength in EMS and EDS combine action for each ring to levitate inside the lining; much like the one that has been achieved by German or Japanese maglev train. Loss of electricity will mean loss of magnetic field bearing, and this translate into the fall of each ring onto their linings, emergence of mechanical friction accompanied with erosion of material, loss of energy, and the eradication of heat.
2. The Double SML Combine System
The other alternative of CEMB for the new breed aircraft to transfer its fuselage weight to its rotors by way of magnetic field is the application of a Double SML Combine System, as illustrated in Figure-VI.
The difference between a Double SML Combine System with a Combine EMS and EDS System described previously, is the implementation of superconductors from Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBa2Cu3O7-x), being cooled by liquid nitrogen to reach its critical temperature of 92 K (-181 ºC).
In a double SML system, a superconductor will act as CEMB upper bearing to push both the inner and outer aircraft’s rings down, while second SML act as CEMB lower bearing to pull both the inner and outer rings down. The advantage of implementing a Double SML Combine System differ from an EDS and EMS Combine Systems is in the fact that, once the system been notified on the “clearance” each ring has to make with its lining, a Double SML Combine System will instantly do the push-pull action in accordance with the clearance already memorized previously by the Double SML Combine System.
With the implementation of a Double SML Combine System, the armatures need to be cool down to material transition temperature to activate its superconducting property.
3. Other Combine System
Further research need to be done to find other alternative of CEMB with better performance characteristic and quality as well as response for both the upper as well as the lower maglev bearing. Aside of better design, new materials need to be introduced as well as design of electronic control system. The aim is to have a much simpler, reliable, and dependable maglev technology with easy maintenance, consume less electrical energy, as well as a long service life.
The New Breed Aircraft Propulsion
To fly the new breed aircraft to its destination an aircraft propulsion is necessary. The aircraft to be equipped with two propellers housed in a duct driven by electric motors. The prime conventional source of energy on board the aircraft, like: liquid fuel, gaseous fuel, nuclear, are for conversion into electricity by means of thermo-mechanical-electric converters. Other prime source of energy, including high capacity batteries, liquid hydrogen for conversion into electricity by mean of fuel cells.
The new breed aircraft is supposed to have two propellers each housed in a duct, known as: Ducted Fan Propeller, abbreviated DFP. The DFP are diametrically positioned on top of the aircraft’s fuselage. The combine action of these propellers will determine total trust generated, and course of the new breed aircraft’s flight and speed to destination. The flight direction be easily changed by way counter-torque introduced by each of the aircraft’s rotor generated, or discrepancy of trust emerging from the new breed aircraft’s propulsion. Figure-VII indicates where the new breed aircraft’s propulsion been installed on top of aircraft’s fuselage.
The New Breed Aircraft Energy Source
Due to the new breed aircraft dimension is great in size, capable to carry very heavy load or very large volume, such as: merchandise in large amount, or raw materials, or passengers in large number; the aircraft will be very heavy and require very enormous power for take-off and fly to destination.
Conventional fuel is not suitable for the new breed aircraft the prime source of energy, because chemical reaction arises from burning: solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel, has low energy content, only few eV per unit mass. Such an energy sources takes up high percentage aircraft weight as well as volume for the fuel storage and requires frequent refueling. Other disadvantage of conventional fuels, except hydrogen use as fuel, they pollute human living environment around the globe with carbon dioxides and other toxic gases. Conventional fuel been used only for the new breed aircraft of smaller sizes like aircraft’s experimental models for gathering in flight information, and other assignments purposes.
On the other hand, nuclear fuels contain ten million times more usable energy per unit mass, therefore suitable for the prime source of energy without the need to have large fuel storage in the new breed aircraft, and require long time refueling. A nuclear fission reaction releases about two hundred million eV (200 MeV) energy per unit mass for every event.
A nuclear fission reaction releases vast amount kinetic energy of nuclear fragments along with electromagnetic radiation in the form of gamma rays inside the reactor. These energies later been converted into heat by way of particles collide with atoms and gamma rays radiation of materials that make up reactor as well as its working fluid mostly water or occasionally heavy water.
The vast amount of usable energy per unit mass contain in nuclear fuel makes it the right prime source of energy for new breed aircraft, both the nuclear fission reaction as well as the nuclear fusion reaction, because each nuclear reaction liberates enormous amount of energy needed by the giant aircraft on take-off and fly to destination. The aircraft does not require space for fuel storage board the aircraft along with frequent refueling, but instead a period of refueling of say once every 5 to 10 years.
With the introduction of liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR) in the 1960s replacing conventional light water reactor, reactor cores does not need to be pressurized; a Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) came into existence ever since, and Thorium Energy Program spread to various countries. With advent thorium reactor and safer material mean it can be supplied at a lower cost with far fewer security needs. A thorium nuclear energy scheme be developed for use in future new breed aircraft.
With German success with nuclear fusion reaction experiment producing helium in Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, first trial on last December 20, 2015 in Bavaria, the clean source of nuclear energy from the fusion of hydrogen isotopes are open for exploitation by the new breed aircraft without fear of the radioactive radiation danger of nuclear reaction.
The new breed aircraft is an electrically powered flying machine, because the aircraft consumes mostly electrical energy. Electric power is used for the levitation aircraft’s rings inside their lining magnetically, run linear motors to turn the aircraft’s rotors for lifting the aircraft, run the aircraft propulsion for flight to destination, lighting, aircraft’s control system and navigation, and so forth. Also run all sort of aircraft’s monitoring system, run telecommunication system, aircraft avionics, in flight Radar System for Collide-Avoidance (RSCA), as well as the real time Aircraft’s Crash-Avoidance System (ACAS), and many others.
The heat liberated by a nuclear fusion reactor will be first converted into electricity by way Thermo-Mechanical-Electric Converter, shorten TMEC, and acts as aircraft power block. Each unit of power block to consist of:
– a set nuclear fusion reactor for the generation heat energy;
– a steam generator unit for the conversion water into high pressure steam, or a gas generator
unit for the conversion normal gas pressure into high pressure gas;
– a set of turbine for the conversion steam potential energy into mechanical energy, or for
the conversion potential energy high pressure gas into mechanical energy;
– a set of high voltage generator for conversion mechanical energy into electricity.
The number of TMEC’s block on board the new breed aircraft on the upper compartment could be 3 or 4 units, are equally spaced. Such an arrangement is necessary to get the aircraft’s load distribution on board the aircraft equalizes, to allow the latter stable in flight to destination be found in Figure-VII.
With the block number more than one, means each unit by power, weight, as well as volume, become smaller. The total power generated is equal the maximum power required by the aircraft in MW for take-off at its maximum weight, having some percentage of overhead power reserve. The power of one block will be the maximum power of the new breed aircraft divided by number of power block been installed on board the aircraft.
The Thermo-Electric Converter
There are some ways heat energy liberated by a nuclear fusion reactor on board the new breed aircraft be converted into electricity , that is to say: the Thermonuclearfission-Mechanical-Electric Convertor, shorten TnfiMEC, and the Thermonuclearfusion-Electric Convertor, shorten TnfuEC.
a. The TnfiMEC and TnfuMEC
A Thermonuclearfission-Mechanical-Electric Converter (TnfiMEC) is similar completely with standard aggregate of coal fired electric power plant to consist of: a boiler for generation high pressure steam, a turbine for conversion the potential energy high pressure steam into mechanical energy, and a high voltage generator for the generation of electrical energy. In the case TnfiMEC boiler replace by nuclear fission reactor, with nuclear fission reaction taking place inside the reactor.
A Thermonucleadfusion-Mechanical-Electric Converter (TnfuMEC) is also same with a standard aggregate of coal fired electric power plant to consist of: a boiler for generation high pressure steam, a turbine for conversion the potential energy high pressure steam into mechanical energy, and a high voltage generator for the generation of electricity. In the case of TnfuMEC boiler replace by nuclear fusion reactor, with nuclear fusion reaction taking place inside the reactor.
For the time being, a nuclear fission reactor, or a nuclear fusion reactor, is to involve as heat generator and be part of the new breed aircraft’s power block along with the following: Pressure Water Reactor (PWR), or Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), or Advance Gas Cooled Reactor (AGCR), or similar other. While for the nuclear fusion reactor to take part in the power block is a tokamak with magnetic confinement technology to keep the extreme high temperature plasma away from the reactor’s chamber walls.
The efficiency of a super critical pressure coal fired power plants at 300 bar steam pressure and 600 °C temperature in the range of 42% to 48 %. In a nuclear power plants having Rankine thermodynamic cycle on the steam turbine side and steam temperatures at saturated conditions, the thermal cycle efficiency is lower, and only about 38 %.
b. The TnfiEC and TnfuEC
Currently efficiency of a static thermoelectric converter with no moving parts remains slim, and consequently little electricity that been generated by the system measured in kW. Such type converter although ideal for installation on board the new breed aircraft, but from standpoint generating electric power is useless. The converter still undergoing research and development in various country to improve the efficiency of direct thermal energy conversion into electricity for use in power plants. As the consequence, a TnfiEC or TnfuEC for power plant for the new breed aircraft will not be available in foresee able future.
The TnfiMEC or TnfuMEC for New Breed Aircraft
There are two prime source of energy for new breed aircraft from nuclear reaction for conversion into electricity to satisfy the new breed aircraft’s thirst of power: the nuclear fission reaction and the nuclear fusion reaction. Each reaction will release enormous amount of heat energy that been revealed by the famous Einstein’s energy-mass formula: E = mc2. The thermal energy liberated or heat will be converted into electrical energy by TnfiMC or TnfuMC block on board the new breed aircraft.
1. The Nuclear Fission Reaction
A nuclear fission reaction is to split massive atomic nucleus into subatomic particles with the release of photons in the form of gamma rays, free neutrons, and others. A typical fission reaction involving 235U and neutron is the following:
23592U + n = 23692U,
and be followed by the emergence of Barium, Kripton, neutron, and the release of heat energy.
23692U = 14456Ba + 89 36Kr + 3n + 177 MeV
Note: This equation is borrowed from: http//www.diffen.com.
Nuclear fission reaction been used in many countries since the Word War II ended for power plants to generate electricity. A lot information and experiences have been collected ever since, and been documented in various scientific books and journals across the globe.
Fission reactor already been applied as prime source of energy for marine propulsion like aircraft carrier for many years without the need frequent refueling, also submarine capable submerging underwater continuously in months without the need to surface during that period.
One disadvantage of nuclear fission reactor for use as prime source of energy for the new breed aircraft is the radioactivity fall-out releases to living environment in the form of alpha and gamma rays, aside from the atomic fragments and energy.
With advent of new generation nuclear fission reactor with lesser radioactive fall-outs released to the environment, a prospect for nuclear power for transportation is in vision. With application of new generation fission reactor, new breed aircraft may get its prime source energy from fission nuclear reactor for the maiden flight.
Figure IXa shows a TnfiMEC block as prime source of electrical energy coming from a nuclear fission reactor generally known as PWR.
2. The Nuclear Fusion Reaction
A fusion reaction is the combination of two or more light nuclei atomic number to form new element of higher atomic number (more protons inside the nucleus). With current technology, the readily feasible reaction is between nuclei of two heavy isotopes of hydrogen deuterium (D) and tritium (T); they are both the isotopes of hydrogen. Each D-T fusion event to be followed with the emergence of Helium, and neutron, accompanied with release heat energy due to the annihilation of matter, as follows:
2 1Deuterium + 3 1Tritium = 42He + 10n + 17.6 MeV (2.8 x 10-12 joule).
Note: This equation is borrowed from: http//www.diffen.com.
Currently, two different experimental approaches been studied, that is to say: the fusion reaction with magnetic confinement and the fusion reaction having inertial confinement. The most effective magnetic configuration is a magnetic confinement in a torus shaped much like thin doughnut, in which the magnetic field been curved around to create a closed loop.
There are some number torus confinement systems available for nuclear fusion reaction, and the most important of all is the tokamak that means in Russian: a “torus chamber”. Today, many countries are taking part in nuclear fusion reaction research led by the association of: European Union, USA, Russia and Japan, with vigorous programs including China, Brazil, Canada, and Korea.
The Joint European Torus (JET) is so far the largest tokamak operating in the world today. Up to 16 MW fusion power for one second had been achieved in D-T plasma making use the device, as well as experiments conducted to study the different heating schemes and other techniques.
Collaboration was established under the auspices of IAEA, between 1988 and 1990, the initial designs were drawn up for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) with the aim to prove that fusion reaction could produce useful electrical energy.
In 1998, the ITER Council approved the first comprehensive design of a fusion reactor based on well-established physics, and technology in the building ITER-Fusion Energy Advanced Tokamak (ITER-FEAT), but still achieve the targets of a self-sustaining reaction and net energy gain.
After 15 years of deliberation, the international scientific community has chosen Cadarache in the southern France, as site for the international ITER project, with which scientists hope to tap the energy from a thermonuclear fusion source.
Note: Condense from “The Encyclopedia of Earth”.
The implementation of “nuclear fissile fuels” or “nuclear fusion fuels” for the prime source of energy of the new breed aircraft, also mean the installation of big machinery in large size, like: nuclear fission reactor or nuclear fusion reactor, TMEC units, electric power distribution, and accessories, etc., on board the aircraft. For the new breed aircraft, such heavy machinery in large size pose no problem for installation, because the upper compartment has a lot of space for the equipment available.
The amount of energy liberated by a nuclear fusion reaction is about three to four times greater than energy released by a nuclear fission reaction. This is because the mass transformed into energy in fusion reaction is much larger in comparison with the fission reaction.
Figure IXb illustrates a TnfuMEC unit with the prime energy source coming from a nuclear fusion reactor known as tokamak.
The New Breed Aircraft’s Power System
The power generated by TnfiMEC or TnfuMEC blocks onboard the aircraft are sent to the main switchboard as shown in Figure-X.
As seen from the drawing, there are three generators supplying electric power into the main switchboard onboard the new breed aircraft. The generated power fed into outgoing feeders as the following:
1. 6 (six) feeders for the inner ring magnetic levitation bearing
2. 6 (six) feeders for the outer ring magnetic levitation bearing
3. 6 (six) feeders for the inner ring linear motors
4. 6 (six) feeders for the outer ring linear motors
5. 2 (two) feeders for the ducted electric motor propulsions
6. 6 (six) feeders for the reactor and boiler pumps
7. 2 (two) feeders for the Radar System in flight Collide-Avoidance (RSCA), and
Aircraft’s Crash-Avoidance System (ACAS) real time monitoring
8. 1 (one) feeder for the telecommunication, avionic, navigation, control and
real time monitoring, and so on.
9. 1 (one) feeder for aircraft’s air condition and cabin pressurization system, lighting,
10. 1 (one) feeder for the aircraft emergency power supply.
The New Breed Aircraft’s Impact on Ecosystem
The new breed aircraft impact on the living environment on earth will depend on the prime source of energy been used. With conventional fuel burned except hydrogen, carbon dioxides be released into the surrounding air and variety toxic gases.
If the new breed aircraft consume nuclear fuels, radioactive fall-outs be released to the living environment, much depends on nuclear fuel used and generation of nuclear fission reaction technology put on board the aircraft generating electricity. Newer generation of nuclear fission like thorium reactor releases less radioactive fall-out into human living environment.
According to report released, a thermonuclear fusion reaction is cleaner than a nuclear fission reactor for the generation of electrical power in terms of polluting biological surroundings on earth surface.
Thermonuclear fusion reactor will be a better candidate for the prime source of energy for the future new breed aircraft also known as ultra.
The New Breed Aircraft’s Design Variation
Except the one shown in Figure-I, the new breed aircraft may also be constructed with other rotor arrangements for application in various field, as shown in Figure-XI the following:
a. Double Counter-Rotating Inner Rotors
The aircraft’s outer rotor as shown in Figure-I been removed to be relocated into ITR, and
let its counter-rotating rotor be relocated right below the existing rotor, as shown in Figure-
XIa. The rest unchanged.
b. Double Counter-Rotating Outer Rotors
The aircraft’s inner rotor as shown in Figure-I been removed, and to be relocated into OTR,
to let its counter-rotating rotor be relocated right below the existing rotor, as shown in
Figure-XIb. The rest remain same.
c. A Single Inner Rotor with Counter Torque coming from Propulsions
The aircraft’s outer rotor as shown in Figure-I, is eliminated. The counter-torque required
for take-off will be borne by propulsion. Depend on direction of rotor rotation,
a propulsion come to produce the necessary counter-torque be followed by another to get
rid the aircraft’s fuselage from spin. Every aircraft’s propulsion has its own spin axis
to alter direction of propeller’s thrust.
d. A Single Outer rotor with Counter Torque coming from Propulsions
The aircraft’s inner rotor shown in Figure-I, been eliminated. The counter-torque required
for take-off will be borne by propulsion. Depend on direction of rotor rotation,
a propulsion come first to produce the necessary counter-torque be followed by another
to get rid the aircraft’s fuselage from spin. Every aircraft’s propulsion has its own spin axis
to alter direction of propeller’s thrust.
e. Personal Flyer
A personal flyer is a twin rotor counter-rotating small aircraft powered by high power
battery. Each rotor has its own magnetic levitation bearings driven by linear motors.
The battery pack is located under flyer’s seat, while a safety parachute is inside stationary
dome over the rotors. Propulsion comes from a propeller driven by an electric motor
or wind deflector mounted right behind flyer’s seat.
The Application of New Breed Aircraft
Various application of the new breed aircraft, especially very heavy freight air ferry to carry goods (merchandise in containers) as well as passengers across the blue planet.
I. Freight Air Service
1. Airborne Container Service (ACS)
Ferry products, commodities, etc., inside containers.
2. Airborne Salvage Aircraft (ASA)
To act of saving goods from wreck ships, destruction, loss damages, etc.
3. Airborne Heavy Mover (AHM)
For moving: houses, buildings, factories, etc.
4. Airborne Tanker (AT)
Ferry various liquid.
5. Airborne Cargo Service (ACS)
Transportation of materials: mineral ore, scrap metal, garbage, etc.
6. Airborne Heavy Lift (AHL)
For the construction of: bridge, prefabricated houses and buildings, etc.
II. Passenger Air Service
1. Worldwide Passenger Air Service (WPAS)
Region and global air travel with hotels and restaurants.
2. Country Air Travel (CAT)
Flying Hotel and Restaurant short haul of local service.
3. Airborne World Travel (AWT)
Travel adventure around of world tourism service.
4. Airborne Pilgrimage Service (APS)
APS will ferry pilgrims from around the world to every religious Holy Land and
back home. This way will alleviate surface transports in and around the Holy
Land as well as nearby cities to get rid of traffic congestion.
III. Airborne Fire Fighting
1. Airborne Fire Fighter (AFF)
2. Airborne Fire Extinguisher (AFE)
3. Airborne Wild Fire Extinguisher (AWFE)
3. Airborne Forest Fire Monitor and Extinguisher (AF2ME)
4. Airborne Tanker for Fire Extinguisher (ATFF)
IV. Airborne Environmental Surveillance
1. Airborne Research for Mother Earth (ARME)
The monitoring of all aspects concerning mother earth, the sustainability of all life
living on her surface.
2. Airborne Marine Environment Monitoring and Rescue (AMEMR)
3. Airborne Earth Terrestrial Environment Research and Rehabilitation (AETER2)
4. Airborne Earth Geological Observation and Reporting (AEOGR)
5. Airborne Worldwide Environmental Protection (AWEP)
6. Worldwide Airborne Search and Rescue (WAGSR)
V. Worldwide Disaster Relief
1. Airborne Disaster Relief (ADR).
2. Airborne Malnourishment Relief (AMR)
3. Airborne Earthquake and Tsunami Relief (AETR)
VI. Flying Health Organization (FHO)
1. Airborne Global Hospital (AGH)
2. Airborne World Training Hospital (AWTH)
3. Airborne World Health Organization (AWHO)
VII. New Industries Surface Having Sky Access
1. Airborne Cereal Farm and Industry (ACFI)
From preparation, planting, harvesting, packaging, for delivery by air to
2. Airborne Cattle Farm and Industry (ACFI)
From cattle farm to production of canned meat and dairy products for delivery
by air to market place.
3. Airborne Worldwide Fishing and Industry (AWFI)
From fish farming to sea and ocean catch, either canned fish or fresh catch for
delivery to market place by air regionally or internationally.
4. Airborne Worldwide Flower Industry (AWFI)
From the farming of flowers to harvesting, selecting, and packaging for delivery to
market place by air regionally and worldwide.
VIII. Worldwide Science and Technical Exchange
1. Airborne Professional Training (APT)
2. Airborne International Education (AIE)
3. Airborne World University (AWU)
IX. World Emergency Assistance
1. Airborne World Emergency Aid (AWEA)
2. Airborne Drought Disaster Relief (AD2R)
3. Airborne Deluge Disaster Assistance (AD2A)
X. World Desert Agriculture
1. Airborne Tanker for Highland Irrigation (ATHI)
2. Airborne Tanker for Draught Relief (ATDR)
3. Airborne Worldwide Wasteland Reforestation Initiative (AW2RI)
XI. World Vertical Farming in cities
1. Airborne Vertical Farming (AVF)
The coaching of vertical farming in cities and their suburbs across the globe.
XII. And so on
H.M.Rusli Harahapn; e-Mail: email@example.com
Pamulang Residence G1
Jalan Pamulang 2, Pondok Benda.
Kode Pos: 15416. Tangerang Selatan.