Many have heard the moans of two Mothers in pain
No one knows, where from the sounds were coming
The moans get louder as time went by, age changes
Come quick, save two moaning Mothers right now!
The semantic religions have thought, that living things: human being, animal, and plant came to earth surface live the mundanely life by the grace of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, first came to Universe took the form of soul (immaterial) traveling a long journey from heaven. Upon arrival in Universe, on earth surface in particular, the soul of human being and other living thing, embarked on a second journey began in the womb, be born to earth surface as: baby, under five year, child, teenage, adolescent, parents, grand father and mother, twilight of life, and end of life. To presents human being and other living thing able be seen on earth surface, can tell something, to communicate with each other, as well as execute various activities, human being as well as other living thing got “matters” (materials) borrowed from the earth surface, to become real thing, as indicator of the material existence, called body.
And for latter said, for human being as well as most of living thing, initially donated by respective parents during copulation, and after fulfilling the breast feeding from biological mother for around two years, then directly be fed by mother earth by way of: drinking, eating, breathing, exercising, etc.; managed by “Natural Live Technology”, shorten: NLT. The process take place right inside the body of a human being as well as other living thing, making use “cold chemical reaction” involving some kind of chemical elements, such as: hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and so on, which are available in Mendeleyev’s table, now popularly known as periodic table, with two elements mentioned earlier dominate. After journey of the mundane live been accomplished for predetermined span granted by Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, to make some “preparation”; human being as well as other living thing will engage again the first journey as soul, after “matters” (materials) borrowed from mother earth been returned, to fulfill the call of Allah, the Beneficent, and the Merciful.
Between each journeys traversed by every soul, the one encounter so many problem to human being as well as other living thing is mundane live on earth surface. One has to acknowledge that there are certain obligations and responsibilities that must be fulfilled by human being in the course of mundane life that fall into 3 (three) categories, in order relation with everything in existence may be established harmoniously. First, relation with Allah, the Most Gracious, and the Most Merciful, called in Arabic: “hablumminAllah”. He is Who to allow human being as well as other living thing came to Universe in general, to earth surface in particular, as place of living blanketed by atmosphere full of air; water inundating all dents on its surface, like: ponds, canals, rivers, lakes, seas, and oceans; and lands for residential as well as business activity of various kind. The latter also where people grow plants for: foods, medicines, buildings, and so on, with light and heat emanated directly from the sun. Second, relation among all human being of all race or ancestor called in Arabic: “hablumminannas”; as well as with other living thing occupying the earth surface. Third, the relation between every living thing occupying the Universe in ganeral, with earth surface in particular known as the blue planet, as a place of living, called in Arabic: “hablumminalkaun”. The latter has an extraordinary properties related to living things which are not yet completely unveiled to human being, having no comparison with any another planet known to mankind so far in the Universe.
For the Universe in general, the earth in particular, a code of conduct must be established from “politeness” at the beginning to “ethics” as well as the relevant “law” with punishment at end, known as: “ The Law of the Universe” particularly “The Law of the Earth”. The execution of the latter must be in correspondence with the severiarity of every wrongdoing done by man to Universe in general, to the earth in particular; consistently executed in the passage of time across the ages, and to be monitored closely. Punishment will be given to every perpetrator who cause the environment around the Universe to deteriorate, particularly on and around the blue planet, where human being and other living thing injuncted by Allah the Beneficent, and the Merciful, to live and stay for a predetermined life span, to be protected from any wrongdoing or destruction effected by human hands.
Sūrah Al-Baqarah (The Cow), Verse 11, has declared:
And when it is said onto them: “Make no mischief in the earth”, they say: we are peacemakers only.
And Sūrah Ali-Imran (The Family of Imran), Verse 112 has informed:
Ignominy shall be their portion where so ever they are found save (where they grasp) a rope from Allah and a rope from men. 13 They have incurred anger from their Lord and wretchedness is laid upon them. That is because they used to disbelieve the revelations of Allah, and slew the Prophets wrongfully. That is because they were rebellious and used to transgress.
13 i.e., when they keep the covenant which the Prophet had made with the Jews of Al-Madinah.
Quote from the Glorious Qur’an, an explanatory translated by Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall. Islamic Book Trust, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2001.
There are still various Sūrahs came afterwards also to remind man to make no mischief on earth. But with the emergence of “industrial revolution”, first wave came up from 1760 to 1820 and 1840 (end of eighteen century to the beginning of nineteenth century), being followed by second wave appearing from 1840 till 1870, had caused the economic development to progress very quickly in Europe. Then the development got its momentum with spread of railways driven by the steam locomotives in a number of European countries in the continent. In United States of America, steam engine was later use to drive vessels in 1850 sailing on: rivers, lakes, seas, and oceans, to replace the unreliable sail driven vessels. The invention of flying machine by Wright brothers in the United States of America entering the 20th century, causing air transport between continents been born across the sky. Great change has happened on earth surface ever since. Land transport was initially tamed animal drawn carriages all over the world been taken over by engine driven transport; also same sail driven water transport be replaced by engine driven vessel; and the introduction of air transport and interplanetary vehicles crowding the sky around the the blue planet, never to be imagined by people to witness in their life.
And from that historical moment: agriculture, industry, various mines from the depth of earth, and other businesses, had altered the course of doing thing from everything done by human and animal muscular power into everything done by the power of newly invented machine. Also came into existence the various war machines like the one used in World War I and World War II, and other wars came afterward like: the Korean War and the Vietnam War.
Industrial revolution also changed the human living environment along with other living thing on earth surface from all eras of the preceding times.
Industrial revolution had changed also human way of live in the community on earth surface, ranging from: mobility, social, values, economy, cultures, beliefs, religion, and many more in the course of live for the entire world; from undeveloped to the developed countries. The earth population getting closer to each other by land, water, and air, in comparison with time before the emergence of industrial revolution, causing social, cultural, religious, conflict to surface across the world in the following centuries.
The industrial revolution began from England in United Kingdom, and spread across Europe, then spelt over to North America, Japan, finally to the rest of the world, not excluding Indonesia. The industrial revolution was first considered as “blessing” for human being living on earth with the various transport driven by engines enabling people to travel anywhere he/she like, not excluding the need to fulfil the Hajj pilgrimage to Holy Land in Mecca and Medina in the Saudi Arabia by aircraft.
Now, after more than two centuries time had elapsed, people then came to realize to the fact that industrial revolution is really the cause of so many “disasters” to human, animal, and vegetation living environment on earth surface. Entering the 3rd milennium, frequent wind with the speed of aircraft take off already happened in many part of the world; an example of which is the flatten of Tacloban city in the Philippine not very long time ago.
Sūrah Ar-Rum (The Romans), Verse 41, from the holy Koran has revealed:
Corruption doth appear on land and sea because of (the evil) which man’s hands have done, that He may make them taste a part of that which they have done, in order that they may return.
It seems that the “warning” in Sūrah Ar-Rum, Verse 41, is in force now working to do evil things on earth surface caused by the industrial revolution. And taste a part of which they have done, and injunction human being to return back to the era, before a “great change” had happened on earth surface.
Ever since the first human being came to earth surface around three hundred thousands years ago, and spread into many ages; Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, had sent messengers to lead human being. These messengers taught people how to run mundane live on the planet surface, bay way the fulfillment of some obligations and to shoulder responsibilities, so that human being and other living things as party of the great Universe can get along harmoniously.
Three of last messengers came to earth surface as mentioned in the holy Koran are: the Prophet Moses AS who brought the Torah to Jews, followed by the Prophet Jesus AS, son of Mary, brought the Bible to Christians, and the Prophet Muhammad SAW brought Koran to Muslims handed over by Gabriel. Besides holy books containing many Sūrah detailed by various Verses, there were also way of live carried out the messengers left behind, later known as hadis written by famous writer of every religion.
As thing invented by God the Almighty by way NLT from earth matter, human being as well as other living thing encounter various problems with with its variety living mundane live on earth surface right from inside womb, born as baby, under five, child, teenage, adolescence, parents, grand father and mother, twilight of life, and end of live.
After almost two years milked by “birth mother”, the responsibility to care human being and other living things, being transferred to “mother care” or “care mother”. The care mother for human being as well as other living things is the earth or the blue planet itself. The latter acts as the place to live in the Universe, the earth surface in particular by providing the living environment for daily necessities such as: air to breath, water to drink, light and heat emitted by the sun, etc.; before returning to God the Almighty in the end.
This is why, every living thing injuncted to live on a planet in this great Universe (Al-Kaun) will have two mothers, each of which: the “Biological Mother” or the “birth mother”, shorten BM, and the “Mother Care” or the “mother care”, shorten MC. The latter is nothing but the planet where one live in the Universe, also called “Planet Mother” or “mother planet”, shorten PM.
Every one the world over knows what is said: “mother country”, other say “father land”; it is that piece of land on the earth surface where one, or his or her father or mother was born, or came from. The combination of all “mother country” or “father land” of all nation living on earth surface was nothing else but the “earth surface” itself. This is the reason why a planet where human being and other living thing stay in the great Universe, been called “Mother Earth”, shorten ME, or scientifically called “Mother Nature”, shorten MN.
That is why any living thing that live in this Universe, on whichever planet he or she or it is injunted by God the Almighty to stay and live, will be born by every BM and cared by collective ME or MN.
Uncountable problems encountered by human being living the mundanely life on earth surface not excluding its variation spread down into: personal, family, group, ethnic, region, national, and international. There are problem of teens entering puberty live with their behaviour require parent attention. There are poverty among earth’s inhabitants require various job to secure its solution. There are illiteracy haunting young people in many places around the globe wanting to get primary education. There are elderly who are physically weak suffered absentminded rising in number the world over. There are problems on belief, religion, intellectual, and so on, need to have attention of the public and government. There are deforestration of national parks in many underdevelop countries producing oxygen for all living things remain unsolved. There are crime, drugs, hijacking, computer hacking, human rights, intellectual property, etc., problems require everyone attention. Other problem not less important to get solved is the pollution of human living environment on land; in water bodies like pond, raw sewage, canal, river, sea and the ocean; the earth atmosphere, also beyond; ever since the industrial revolution started more than two centuries ago.
Please bare in mind, each of aforesaid problem will have its dynamic, meaning that there are problem just appear, other continuously being on hold, while other absent for a while and suddenly reappear unpredictably. This is why problems encountered by human being in mundanely life cannot all be known, also be broken down one by one. Besides, these problems are also running one after the other to get solution, because if one is unsolved or be solved too late may invite a disaster to human being or other living thing.
The House of Allah
During his life on earth, the prophet Muhammad SAW suggested people to build Mosque. A Mosque is a “bait ul- Allah” or the house of Allah, because the site on which it was built determined by people who had acquired His blessing, and the fund was used to build it come from people who were willingly donate due whose heart has been urged by Him.
Nowadays there are about 1.000.000. Mosques in Nusantara (Indonesia), big and small, being spread from cities big and small up to villages. Even more number of Mosque already been established outside the Nusantara being spread into many countries across the world.
All Houses of God are places on earth surface use to worship Allah, the Most Gracious, and the Most Merciful (HablumminAllah) as conveyed by Sūrah Ali-Imran, Verse 112. It was also the places for the peaceful relation among Muslim from all race or ancestor (Hablumminannas) all over the world to exchange information on Islamic faith, religious teaching, as well as gaining various knowledge and science scattered by Allah, the Most Gracious, and the Most Merciful, across the great Universe, including planet earth.
Now with industrial revolution broke to surface, and spread to every corner of the world not to exclude the Nusantara, various pollution were introduced to living environment of human being and other living thing. Land, water, atmosphere, and space around the blue planet been polluted by wastes for more than two centuries, there are no other way for earth citizen of all faith around the world, except to root out the couse of environmental pollution right from the surface of the blue planet called ME.
The pollution introduced by the industrial revolution emerging from Europe, already restless MC who is entitled to be responsible to all living thing on the blue planet surface. To get rid of the pollution, Sūrah Ali-Imran, Verse 112, has to be supported by Sūrah Ar-Rum (The Romans), Verse 41, saying: “Corruption doth appear on land and sea because of (the evil) which man’s hands have done, that He may make them taste a part of that which they have done, in order that they may return”.
It appears that Sūrah Ali-Imran, Verse 112, valid for period of human live of the pre-industrial revolution, when mankind remain in worldview of “duologue”, i.e.: HablumminAllah and Hablumminannas perse. Now after introduction industrial revolution been born to earth surface, more than two centuries ago, and has shown a clear sign of climate change on earth surface in negative direction or not in favor of every living thing existence, the warning of Sūrah Ar-Rum (The Romans), Verse 41, must also be taken to save both MB and ME.
The joint action of Sūrah Ali-Imran, Verse 112, and Sūrah Ar-Rum (The Romans), Verse 41, lead to the introduction of new worldview, the “trilogy”, i.e.: HablumminAllah, Hablumminannas, and Hablumminalkaun, being demanded by all living thing after the “industrial revolution” had born on earth surface.
The worldview switch from “duologue” to “trilogy” been communicated with every world citizen, now living on earth surface by preacher of each faith on the blue planet. For the Muslim religion been effect by Imam with his subordinate in Mosque as well as Islamic school of education like madrasah etc. throughout the world. For other belief been effect by dignitary of respected Holy House of faith along with respected school of religious education etc. Also mass campaign of open air in large crowd by a variety organization in favor to save “the only earth” must be encouraged to convey this important message.
The message switching from duologue to trilogy must get through to each citizen of the earth wherever he/she lives get rid of pollution that has happened on earth surface, especially the real climate change that has occurred on earth surface, so there will be no one known as “son of Adam” left behind uninformed.
Arrival of Living Thing
After the very high temperature glowing fireball turn cold enaugh on earth orbit, plants predicted came to earth about 430 million years ago. With advent of vegetation capable to deliver a variety of food, animal follow suite came to earth predicted arrive the last 75 million years, followed by monkey imitating human being about the last 10 million years, and finally arrived on earth surface was human being about the last 300.000 years. That was result of the scientific research conducted so far on the coming of various living thing to earth surface as seen from the point of view of evolution developed so far.
It must be acknowledge that Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, has made NLT with organic chemistry of cold or body temperature to present a variety living thing on earth surface, such: plants, animal, and human being, making use various chemical elements in periodic table with water as mayority constituent of about 70 % body weight.
Having NLT, all living thing on earth surface can have their food as well as other live necessities on embarking the second live, i.e. mundanely live on earth surface from birth to end of live, supported by the earth’s living environment and light with heat coming from the sun. Besides, NLT also foreseen how to get rid of environmental pollution once living things completed their mundanely live, and return the matters borrowed back to ME after live span had elapsed.
Bare in mind, NLT introduced by Allah the Almighty constitute of chemical elements establishing living thing’s body of various form on embarking the second journey of mundanely live on earth surface. First, ME borrows various chemical elements required by any living thing to exist in live, like: plant, animal, and human being. These elements came from the earth crust of shallow depth, a mere less than tens meter. Second, all body that have been left behind by souls after completion their second journey will be send back to where they came from by way of: burial, sunken, or simply left over, will be recycled first by billion of bacteria working as predator, then by other predators then invited depend on size and condition. This way all bodies returned to ME’s lap been disassembled back into various chemical elements on the periodic table, to be borrowed then by next generation living things entitled to embark second journey of mundanely on earth surface. For the body cremated, fire acts as the predator to disassemble back into chemical elements. Third, NLT with organic chemistry is the cold way of establishing various living things body in mundanely live on earth surface, beginning from womb, born as baby, under five, child, teens, adolescent, parents, grand father and mother, twilight of live, and end of live. This is not to exclude the independent of every living thing shown by personality, intelligence, etc.; which are yet still unveiled in to human understanding about their origin, location, etc., in each body up until now.
The Earth Inhabitant
Up until now, the inhabitant on earth surface continous rise with time. When Sūrah Al-Alaq been revealed to the Prophet Muhammad SAW on August 6, 610 AD inside Hira cave by the angel Jibril (Gabriel), number of human being living on earth surface was estimated to be about 200.000.000 people. And, after 1150 years time has elapsed since then, more than a Milennium, until the emergence of industrial revolution” in the European continent, number of earth population has raised to 720.000.000 people, with an average rate of population increase of: 452.000 people every year. Then, in the year 1850 AD, the inhabitant of the blue planet has reached 1.200.000.000 (one Billion two hundred Million) people. In the year of 1950 AD alone, a hundred years later, the human population on earth surface has reached 2.500.000.000 people, with an average rate of population increase of 13.000.000 people every year. From what has been mentioned above, there has happened a drastic “change” of population average rate of rise on the blue planet, from: 0,452 million people every year to 13 million people every year in the last one hundred year. The deviation of earth population rate of increase from almost “horizontal” to nearly “vertical”, was due to the “industrial revolution”, and undoubtedly introduced by man, making so many ease of live happened on the earth surface, such as: traveling, production of goods and services, mechanization of agriculture, etc.; travelling the “second journey” or the mundanely live on earth surface. In year 2000 AD human population on earth already over 6 Billion people, and in 2011 already reached 7 Billion people. Future forecast gives: in the year 2025 human inhabitant on earth surface will reach: 8 Billion people, and in year 2043: 9 Billion people, and on entering the first century of 3rd Millennium will be over 10 Billion people. The following graph indicates how human population rises on earth surface as prepared by Google.
Short History of Philosophy
1. Islamic Philosophy in Middle East
Religion brought by the Prophet Muhammad SAW lead Muslim to establish an Islamic Caliphate on Arabian peninsula in the seventh century AD, later expand to surrounding region. As the consequence, meeting with other cultures already in existence unhindered. “Ilmu kalam” or science of logical thinking enter Muslim community with an aim to transfer the teaching of the new religion the practical way, lead to the birth of Islamic theology. Then came: fiqih (law), tasawwuf (sufis), Islamic philosophy, etc. Philosophy introduced to Muslim: debate, dialectic, argument, and others, to get rid differences in various views. The Islamic philosophy also deals with live in general, also mundanely live, universe, values, ethic, society; methodically gathered for use by the Muslim.
Muslims got attracted with Greek philosophy, ever since the early age of Hijrah (the Islamic calendar) with a belief that, Allah is the creator of everything in existence, while science and knowledge brought down and scattered all over the entire universe to lead mankind understand and know more about Him, and everyhing that has been created by Him.
Not long after the first Caliphate of Islamic spread its wing, the Caliphate of Abbasid (750–1258) instructed its people to gather Greek’s manuscripts circulating in the country to raise caliphate image. Some philosopher of the Islamic world became wellknown in Middle East ever since the historical moment among them: Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi, Ibnu Sina, Al Gazali, Ibnu Bajah, Ibnu Thufail, and Ibnu Rusyd. Right from early nineteenth century Al-Makmun bin Harun Ar-Rasyid (813-833), the seventh ruler of Abbasid, along with his predecessor seriously introduce the Greek’s philosophy and teaching to Muslim societies in the Arab world.
In 762, the Abbasid Caliphate moved the capital from Damascus to Baghdad, and called latter city a marketplace for the world. Then the Turks and Mongols came around and took over the empire by invading its cities and destroying many places, but still let the caliph live and left the empire with time to ruin. The Abbasid dynasty then died along with the caliph.
After the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate in Bagdad, the Caliphate of Córdoba on the peninsula of Iberia and part of North Africa with Córdoba as the capital was established. The Caliphate of Córdoba was part of the state of Caliphate of Umayyad was existed from 929 to 1031. The region formerly dominated by the Emirate of Córdoba from 756 to 929 of the Umayyad Caliphate. The period characterized by expansion of trade and culture exchanges between two sides of the Middle East, i.e: around Greek, Turk, the Arab peninsula, and others, with the peninsula of Iberian, later known: Portugal, Spain, France, and others. The period also saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture, like Alhambra’s Islamic palaces, Cordoba Great Mosque, etc., as known today, was built for the last Muslim emirs in Spain and the court of the Nasrid dynasty; then converted into a royal palace in 1333 by Yusuf I, the Sultan of Granada.
In January 929, Abd-ar-Rachman III proclaimed himself caliph of Córdoba in place of his original title, Emir of Córdoba. He was a member of the Umayyad dynasty, which had held the title of Emir of Córdoba since years 756.
During the reign of Umayyad Caliphate, medditerranian sea acted waterway as well as the artery of trade and cultural exchange between its two side, because land transport on the northern and southern part of the medditerranean sea were people walking on foot step and carriages drawn by tamed animal like horse etc. with access very limited. Also same for the trade and cultural exchange between the peninsula of Iberia and the western Eurpean countries, such: France, United Kingdom, Dutch, German, and the rests.
The Atlantic waterway can hinder freezing in winter due to the well known tropical warm stream diverted by the Gulf of Mexico flowing far to the north, causing the Atlantic become freed from the layers of ice for sailing throughout the year.
Latter waterway has contributed to the development of trade and cultural exchange between the Iberian peninsula and Western Europe, while both waterways has transferred science and the medditerranian culture from around the Greek, Turk, Arabian peninsula, even as far as Persia and India, gathered by Arabian thinkers prior to the emergence of renaissance in Western Europe.
The attention of Muslim scholars to philosophy and science continue to escalate under the fifth Umayyad Caliphate, known as Muhammad ibn Abdurrahman (832-886 M). At times scholars of the Islamic world not adhere to Muslim orthodox further. Together with their non-Muslims counterpart they were venturing the Greek, Hindu, and other pre-Islamic thinking, through relatives and friendship with the Christians living in Western Europe.
Both of them worked hard hand in hand to make the Aristotelian thinking back known again by Christian community, after for so long lost from their memory living in European society. Among the prominent Islamic thinkers been mentioned are: Al-Farabi, Ibnu-Sina, and Al-Kindi.
They had long introduced the Aristotle, Neoplatonic, and others into the Islamic communities in Middle East. Many had considered that they were not belong to the Islamic orthodox, even other considered them no more Islamic philosopher considering the writing had been done. Below descriptions of some prominent Islamic philosopher at the time:
Al-Kindi (801-873) was an Arab of Kinda tribe, a man who founded the Islamic philosophy, was born in Bagdad, Irak. After completing school in his town of birth, he went to Bagdad for further education and various disciplines like: mathematics, physics, mistique, arts as well as others. He introduced philosophy to the Islamic world in Middle East and laid the foundation. Al-Kindi quickly catch the attention of “house of wisdom” as well as circle inside the Abbasid Caliphate entrusting Al-Kindi to supervise the translation of various Greece manuscripts on science and philosophy from the Greek into Arabian language. Al-Kindi was one of Arabian scholar who left behind variety of writing among others: metaphysics, ethic, logic, psychology, medicine, pharmacology, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, and optic. He was also fascinating with topics such: meteorology, earth quacke, etc., which considered down to earth.
Al-Ash’arī (874–936) was a scholar and an Islamic theologian from Middle East named Al-Ashari. He was born in Basra, and the descendand of one of the close friend of the prophet Muhammad SAW. As young man, he started to learn from Al-Jubba’i, a known Mu’tazilah school of theology and philosophy at the time. The Al-Jubba’i was an education based on rational reasoning from human thinking famous at the time. Al-Ashari implemented the Mu’tazilah teaching fully loyal until his age reached forty years.
One day in the month of Ramadhan, he dream meeting with the prophet Mohammad SAW. Same dream continuously for three days in sequence requesting him to return to hadis tradition of Muslim. From that time on, Al-Ash’arī left the Mu’tazilah and tuned into its fierce opposition. All the best he knew on philosophy ever since is directed to oppose the teaching he was once very loyal with.
Because of his influence was so great, Muslim in Middle East treated him as a man who founded the widely accepted Al-Ashari teaching of Islam in the region, even Imam Al-Ghazali the well known writer of four books: “Ihya Ulum ’Ad-Din” (Revival of Religion’s Sciences), follow suite.
Ibnu Sina (980-1037) was another Arab scholar qualified in many discipline of science such: philosophy, astronomy, chemistry, geology, psychology, Islamic theology, logic, mathematics, physics, not to exclude writing of poems many Moslem scholar familiar during the time. But what makes his name propelled high around the world was about the healing of various disease, which turn into canon book of medicine of two well known universities in Europe then, i.e.: Montpelier and Levant in France until the year 1650.
Al-Ghazali (1058–1111) was an Islamic theologian from Persia, fond of the Islamic legal system (sharia law), philosophy, etc., and not excluding the mistic. He became the most influential Muslim in the Islamic world after the death of the prophet Muhammad SAW. He was one of Renewal (Mujaddid) of the Islamic belief, and according to the religious tradition in Middle East will come to earth every one hundred years or so. The works of Al-Gazali then well received and highly respected by every Muslim of his time; he was awarded honorific title: Hujjat al-Islam (Proof of Islam). Other accused him opposition to Neoplatonic version of Islamic belief and teaching having not less follower in the region. Al-Ghazali also successfully restored the influence of Islamic orthodoxs in the region who for so long time had carried out the teaching of their Sufi so far.
Al-Farabi (1165-1240) was an Arab mystical Sufi also a philosopher. He was qualified in many science disciplines such: logic, medicine, sociology, and posteriori analysis of Aristotle. Through his works, Al-Farabi became well known among the Muslim community in Middle East as well as the West. Community of scholars of the Middle Ages named him honorific title: “second teacher”, for his adherence to the teaching of Aristotle: “the first teacher”. Al-Farabi worked in Bagdad where he spent most of his live writing and teaching.
Ibnu Rushd (1126-1198) born in Cordoba Spain and and died in Marrakesh Marocco. He was the son of Andalusian soil, and a Muslim with a variety of discipline covering: Aristotelian philosophy, Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology, the Maliki law along with its jurisprudence, logic, psychology, politics, and classic theory of Andalusian music, medicine, astronomy, geography, mathematics, not excluding the mechanic of celestial bodies. Ibnu Rushd was the man who laid foundation of the “secular philosophy”, now widely accepted in European continent. He was also the true defender of the Aristotelian philosophy, although being on the apposite side with the theology developed by Al-Ashari supported by Imam Al-Ghazali.
From the Andalusian soil, now called Spain, the work of philosophy developed by the Arabian scholars later been translated into Hebrew and Greek, to be carried to European soil for the development modern philosophy on that continent. Among the Arabian philosophers, there was a Jewish named Maimodes also lived and worked in the Spain community of Muslim, also took part in the translation from the Arabian language.
Also belong to the community of Muslim scholar at the time, was Ibnu Khaldun from Andalusia born in Tunisia. He laid the foundation of sociology and histography, became another prominent Arabian scholar, and introduced himself not as philosopher, but rather only a kalam (science) writer.
In European medieval period, from the 5th to the 15th century, the collapse of the Roman Empire, and the cessation of Latin Western Church lead by bishop of Rome, from Eastern Orthodox Churches headed by the patriarch of Constantinople in the year 451 have gone from the public memory, not excluding the literacy to write and read manuscripts written in Greek by European people at large.
With the reintroduction Greek philosophy back into Europe from translation of the Arabian manuscripts into Hebrew and Greek with notes and explanation made by Arabian scholars, a leap in philosophy had happened. This made great influence to rebirth of philosophy in European continent at the time, and its effect went far into renaissance, a period of time between 14th to the 17th century, which was considered a period of time in history bridging Middle Ages with modern history.
2. Islamic Philosophy in South East Asia
After the emergence in the peninsula of Arabia then spread over Middle East, the Islamic religion later expanded to Asia, not excluding the South East Asia carried by the mubaligh (Islamic preacher) and Islamic merchant and trader. They came from places, such: Mecca, other from Gujarat in India, the rest from Persia as well as other places. Then appeared Islamic Kingdom in the South East Asia with the Islamic institutions like: government, education, a religious way of live, poetry writing, artistic, not excluding economic.
At time when Ibn Battuta (1304–1368), Maroccon traveler paid visit to a country named: Samudera Pasai Sultanate in South East Asian region in 1345 and met a solemn King from the Al-Shafi’i mazhab (Islamic law doctrine) was ruling the country.
The Sultanate was established by Meurah Silu in 1267 governed until 1297, located on the north Perlak area Lhok Seumawe now (east coast Aceh), directly adjacent to the Strait Malacca. The King then converted to Islam called in Arabic as Malik ul-Saleh or Sultan as-Saleh. It was then clear, that the school of thought of Imam Al-Shafi’i supported by Imam Al-Ghazali already been spread over South East Asian region on entering the 13 th century.
The Wealth of Nation
a. Free Economic System, or Liberal Economic
During mercantile time in England, anybody was allowed to do various businesses to make a living, beginning producing commodities as well as doing services, or both, to serve the public request. Both sold in various markets everywhere. Then raise competition among commodity and service providers or both by invisible hands, for product and service prices as well as quality for an agreed quantity product or service or both, in a contracted trade delivery time. The earning of entrepreneur depends on the amount of commodity or service or both sold within a year. The government only acts as supervisor and administrator, did not involved with the production of commodity and service, but did provide business place with rules and equal environment on economic, social, cultural, politics, equal for all for the collected tax given.
Entering the renaissance in Europe, back by philosophy and various knowledge processed by the Arabs carried Middle East, the thinking base of European intellectuals has been developed to such as extent and allow them create applied trade in that part of the world.
This could be seen with the emergence of “scientific analysis” with the development of steam engine, was pioneered by Thomas Savery (1650-1715) from England who first introduced water- pump having steam in a vessel cooled by a spray of water. Thomas Newcomen (1664-1729) his fellowman then improved his invention, who replaced vessel with a cylinder with a moving piston inside. James Watt (1736-1819) another fellowman, took the opportunity to introduce the first “mechanical power source” in the world making used the invention his two early countrymen converting the “potential energy” of steam pressure into mechanical energy of rotation in demand of various industry at the time.
The three Englishmen had touched the first “technology domino” in the world, introducing the genuine natural energy, engineered by the intelligence of human mind, then midwifed the birth of “industrial revolution” on this blue planet beginning from Europe more than two centuries ago.
The scientific analysis acquired by several Erope countries at the time, being broaden its scope to cover not only to application source of mechanical energy and a variety industries being born ever since. The analysis was also use cover other areas, such: politics, social, and other; and culminating at the discussion of the “wealth of nation” on earth forwarded by Adam Smith from Scotland.
But in fact, the broadening of scientific analysis in the “mercantile economic system” turn the latter into a “capitalistic economic system” in England, as well as a number other European countries at the time, later known as “capitalism” ammunition by the rapid progress of research on science and technological development ever since the brook out of industrial revolution in European continent.
Adam Smith also continued with his analysis enhancing the world condition and raised question: could industrialization improve the live of all human being as seen from life expectancy, a shorter work live in industry, and free child and elderly from obligation to do work to make a living?
Right from the early time, capitalism quickly spread over the European continent backed by the progress of science researches and their accumulation on that part of the world as well as developed various technology. Automobile quickly replaced wagon pulled by tame animal like horse etc. on roads in various countries beginning from Europe, and spread to North America, then Japan, as well as other part of the world.
Railway driven by steam locomotives burning coal been introduced in a number European country to carry goods as well as passenger, later exported to another country on the other continent including Asia, for unit “cost of transport” of passenger or goods was so cheap.
Water transport driven by steam engine burning coal also follow suit from canal, rive, lake, sea, and ocean, for its reliability compared with sailing vessels driven by wind. Later be replaced with diesel engine for easy handling, because it just burn liquid fuel.
The success of Wright Brothers from United States of America with their experiments, give birth “transportation through the earth atmosphere”, popularly known as “air transport”, to move passenger and goods across islands and continents.
Beside so many industry and the various mean of transport been mentioned as product of human mind intelligence, there still uncountable number of industries including their variety have appeared on earth surface since the outbreak of industrial revolution on earth. Some of them may be elaborated and among them: cement plants, metal working plant and industries, coal mines, mines of various metal, oil drilling with respective refinery from built on land to offshore, plastic industry, building industry, chemical industry, paper industry, food packaging industry, and still many more.
In the course of time, capitalism developed into “imperialism”, because in due time the system gained more land area on earth surface converted into occupied territory, or colony. Colonialism later impacted the world with the acquisition of fertile lands in: Latin America, Caribia, Africa, Asia including South East Asia, Australia, and Oceania, for convertion into various plantation of variety culture of high economic advantage, such as: rubber for tire, palm tree for cooking oil, tobacco for cigarette, sugar cane for sugar, and many others. The mining of coal, petroleum, and other natural resources from colonies around the world are for the purpose to supply industries developed in Europe, North America, and Japan, which are hunger of raw material and thirsty of fuel and lubricating oil deep into the last 20th century.
From the beginning of industrial revolution, capitalism had established various industries from light to heavy industry in a number of countries in that par of the world. As a consequence, the flow of matter (thing) from the belly of earth to its surface, such: fuel (coal, petroleum, and gas) including the various mineral (mineral for making iron and steel), copper, aluminun, pure metal, etc.); and still many others.
These minerals are needed by countries producing various commodity, and infrastructures, the means of transportation: on land, on water, and in the air; civilian and military providers of equipments, many more required by societies as well as government from local inquiry up to global demand.
So do industries supplying canned foods and drinks, textile, agricultural machinery, animal husbandry, fishery, and many others. The migration of matter (thing) from the belly of earth to its surface commence as early as the industrial revolution brook out more than two centuries ago, continues until today, further will be named as “the flow of matter”.
After mastering the production of commodity and services for a given price, quality, and quantity in a contractual trade time of delivery; the problem faced by capitalism on earth surface nowadays, are. First waste gases from combustion of fuel (solid, liquid, gases) continuously expelled to blue planet’s atmosphere by the means of transportation: on land, on water, and through the air. Second polluted-water drained to water-body’s environment (sewage, pond, river, lake, sea and ocean) by various industry and other economic activities, not excluding household in villages, towns, and cities, small and big, around the world, polluting drinking water as well as foodstuff raising various health disorder to community members varies from physical to psychic (mental).
Third, solid-waste from the various mean of transport (on land, on water, in the air) built by various industries having useful economic live has ended. Also same for the various other industry, mining, installation of drilling rig from land to offshore, etc.; scraps of computers and electronic equipment, scraps of digital technology and gadgets, etc.; also household articles no longer in use then left behind. These scraps occupy an ever increase space on earth surface.
Right from early of industrial revolution, the three category of wastes coming from the flow of matter (thing) leaving the earth belly migrating to its surface that never end, still continuously flowing until today.
Now the flow of matter (thing) leaving the earth belly migrating to its surface increasing its quatity measured in “million metric ton”, in correspondence with the world population increase, and their activity as well as creativity, much like a snow ball rolling down the Alpen mount slope in Europe during winter.
Bare in mind, capitalism now dominates the world economy as well as in control. Capitalists are competing acquiring mineral resources of value extracted from the earth belly (matter), either available in their homeland or coming from outside the country, causing the blue planet’s ecosystem is not easy to maintain the natural gift as well as protect its sustainability.
Of course, capitalism has so many experience producing various industrial commodities as well as services back by quality of human resources developed since the outbreak of industrial revolution as well as the global financing. As a consequence, the environment of human being and other living thing on earth surface, especially in the third world where supervision to over exploitation of mineral resources and fauna flora along with the biodiversity riches of nature; to fulfill current hunger and thirst of world market on commodities and services.
Now capitalism has to look for ways, in order “the flow of matter” (thing) from earth belly migrating to its surface no longer end up in the form of: 1. waste-gases polluting air in the atmosphere, 2. polluted-water coming from the use of precious fresh-water, 3. scraps of various industrial and non-industrial producs littered everywhere on earth surface.
There should be a way out, in order “the flow of matter” (thing) from the depth of earth to the surface no longer turn into polluter: common, dangerous, and extremely dangerous to any living thing. Getting rid of pollutant got into human body with daily routines such: drinking, eating, breathing, and daily activities, undesirable physical disorder as well as psychical impact can be avoid. The physical disorder involved the abnormal function of inner organ and limbs. The psychical impacts involve among other a strange in behavior, unable to think, as well as loss of memory with ease, and so on.
For point 1, billion of means of transports beginning from: vehicles on land surface, various ships over waters, and many kind aircraft trough the air; all spewed million metric tons each year exhaust gases into the atmosphere of blue planet causing air being polluted. Also uncountable number industries of various kind been established since the outbreak of industrial revolution more than to centuries ago.
An intelligent idea got thumb up, for problem facing capitalism, what is now being seriously tested in some country is the implementation of hydrogen as fuel. It is also about about the “migration” from “fossil-fuel economy” into “hydrogen-fuel economy” to clear air in earth atmosphere from waste-gases burning fossil fuels, because the burning of hydrogen in the engine cylinder as well as fuel cells only water vapor.
The idea raised by John Bockris fron the Technical Division of General Motors in a seminar in last 1970. Than on October 10, 1997, Richard Daley, the mayor of Chicago with his colleges ride in a bus run by hydrigen fuel, the chemical element of periodic table abundant on earth surface, extracted from natural gas by chemical process. A fuel cell will convert hydrogen into “electrical energy” and “water” with oxygen coming from the air without combustion, then introduced by the Ballard Power Systems (BPS) from Vancover. Later it is unveiled that energy conversion by way of fuel cells three times more efficient than ICE burning fossil fuels.
How the efficiency of pair of fuel cells with electric motor better than ICE came about. Imagine an ICE; as soon as ignition of fuel-air mixture took place, a high temperature gas with pressure occurs instantly. From the TDC (top dead center) heat radiated to dissipate in all direction. Only the heat in the course of piston moving down truly converted into motion, while the rest taken out by: radiation, cooling water, and exhaust gases; and constitute the 75% amount of heat wasted by an ICE. That is why the efficiaency an ICE lies only around the figure of 25 %.
On the other hand, pair of fuel cells with electric motor without combustion turned the equivalent “heat of combustion” 100% right into electricity by chemical means. When electricity converted into motion, heat liberated inside conductor due to the flow of current making total loss of heat of about 25 % in value. The remaining 75% still in electricity, which is why a pair of fuel cells with electric motor three times more efficient than an ICE.
Electricity created in fuel cells been sent to electric motor causing the BPS bus to run. The latter exhaust gases just unpolluted water vapor turned into water. The mayor seep a glass of water taken from the bus tail pipe and commented: “not bad”. The BPS bus reached speed up to 80 km/hour and travelled a distance up to 400 km in a fully charged hydrogen fuel.
For point 2, fresh-water turned into polluted-water were drained into water-bodies (sewage, pond, river, lake, sea, and ocean) around the globe from households in villages, cities from small to big, various industry from small to large, various type of transport, mining, oil drilling with the refinery, and many others. To get rid of polluted-water, Water Treatment Plant (WTP) has to be introduced retrieve the fresh-water back from the polluted-water.
Only fresh-water been allowed to be drained into water-bodies across the blue planet whatever its form. MN had done it million of years to drop rain out of fresh-water on earth surface. MN has shown how to get fresh-water by separating the various pollutant from polluted-water with “evaporation”, making use “heat” coming from the sun; then accumulated into clouds over the earth surface, and after being distributed by wind, been drained back to earth surface as rain.
Now it is time to educate the world population to develope, built, and use mini-WTP for the household from the villages, medium-WTP for cities and industries along with business of medium scale, as well as large-WTP and giant-WTP for metropolis and industrial complexes across the globe. By this way only fresh-water is allowed been drained to earth environments around the world to heed the teaching of MN that had been done for so long.
Baring in mind more than 70% the weight of human being, and majority of living thing made of water; making the susceptible with the quality of water consumed, especially polluted water, because if a portion of such water got into the body by way of: drinking, eating, activities, an unwanted effect: physical or psychical might happened.
After industrial revolution came to surface, the world experience acid rain in Europe, North America, as well as Asia. The smokes from chimneys of steam power stations burning coals in fact contain sulfur. The sulfur mixture with water making leafs of nearby wood got soaked with the acid rain to dry and die. Other water-body contamination came from oil spill during drilling either from onshore and offshore drilling. Another disaster incurred by oil tanker unwanted collision with coral reefs.
For point 3, scraps of various means of transport (vehicles, ships, airplanes, military machines, and others), also ruins of steel constructions including mines from land to offshore and still many others.
Entering current millennium, also come up mountains electronic equipments (computers, smart phones, tablets, and others) that turn into scraps. To get rid of this mountains of electronic and digital technology which were left behind littered by users everywhere, it is necessary to built “spinning reserve” of various raw material needed by many industries to produce commodity or products from the small size to the gigantic scale.
The “spinning reserve”, shortened SR, is what later came been called: Bank of Raw Material or abbreviated BoRM. As has been found in real live, NLT introduced a “system of predator” to take care of waste, and institute a food chain to get rid of “dead bodies” after been left behind by the soul, in order the human living environment being free from life remains.
In correspondence with example given by NLT aforementioned, upon the various commodities or products introduced by technology established by human being, what ever it was, similar treatment can be applied to industrial products where its economic came to end, to be recycled to get the raw materials back into stock.
That is why capitalism has to establish various Predator Industries (PI) on the blue planet, work as a food chain, to recycle the various industrial commodities or products with their economic live have come to end. All PIs will feed raw materials into BoRM, now coming from urban mining instead of rural mining, such: steel, copper, aluminum, and others, to be stored back into SR.
Every PI will produce one or more the various raw materials required by industries producing the various products in demand by market, beginning from home industry in villages to heavy industry in cities as well as the industrial parks. Having BoRM in strategic location around the world, various industries and other businesses can buy raw material right from the nearby SR from the own or neighbor country for economy. In the future rural mining of various raw materials must be limited to cover only for “short of stock” in BoRM with stringent supervision.
With the provision of raw material coming from BoRM or SR for various industries in the future, the ecosystem on earth surface been protected for world heritage, can no longer able be destroyed by an unaccountable person in the third world done so far. In this way, the blue planet, the only extraordinary celestial body in the Universe be saved for next generation, now known to age 4.6 Billion years.
b. Guided Economic System
Marxism started as reaction to the emergence of industrial revolution in Europe. According to Karl Marx (1818-1883), industrialization will divided societies into a group of the bourgeoisie, a people who own the various means of production from land to factories of very small number, and large number of proletariat who does the various job with the means of productions owned by the bourgeoisie.
Marx saw industrialization as a logical dialectic of the feudal economic executor to get perfect capitalism, and the latter was introduction to communism. In socialism, all means of production of all business belong to the socialistic country, been managed by the communism government under the Marxism and Leninism ideology.
All people must work for the country, giving all effort to one’s ability, and get from the country according to one’s need. It would be wrong for the moral of communism if someone run a business, either producing commodities or services, then employ a fellowman, and pay him/her a good salary in return at the end of the month. This practice was considered to be “exploitation of a man by another man in one’s own country”, which by then was considered immoral.
After the Marx, his followers split into two. One group developed in Germany and refused the France revolution (1789-1799), cost the life of King Louis XVI in Paris, causing terrors were spreading in the country, worsening the live of people everywhere ever since; and try to look for peaseful means to improve the lives of working people in Europe by reformation.
Other group named the K. Kautsky follower, then lead by W. I. Lenin, repeated the France revolution 128 years earlier. Now to topple the Tsar Nikolas II from his throne with a bloody Bolshevik revolution carried out by the Red Bear proletariat in Russian capital, then Petrograd, on the November 7, 1917; with the King and his family being separated in Ekaterinburg in Siberia.
Lenin successfully established a dictator-proletariat government in Russia with the Bolsheviks, having a single communist party controlling the nation without any opposition of whatsoever against the ruling government. Tsar of Russia was then busy developing “capitalistic economy system” responsible for the wealth of every Russian, as being done by other country in Europe at the time. With the success of Bolshevik revolution in Russia, it had be turned into a “socialistic economic system”, later popularly known as “socialism”, the first of its kind in the world to follow the Marx theory.
The country been renamed Sovyet-Union, which means a union of federation of states. The capitalistic economic system of the Tsar Nicolas II responsible for the wealth of his people, been replaced by the socialistic economic system in the country. Latter economic system then also been spread to all corner of the world. And after World War II, must be adopted by all countries later known belong to the satellite of the Sovyet-Union; also not excluding member of a Third World as well as member of Non Block countries willing to taste sweetness of the socialistic economic system for gaining wealth of people in the future.
At time, when the Red Bear country plunged into a heavy political turmoil, Michail Gorbachov as the president of the Sovyet-Union allow “general election”be conducted in the country, the only election ever been done in Russia after the fall of Tsar Nicolas II from throne. The winner in democratic general election in Russian Soviet Federativ Socialist Republic (RSFSR) on March 26, 1989, was B. N. Boris Yeltsin; and became the first President of RSFSR, although he had declared himself no longer member of the Sovyet-Union communist party of Red Bear country.
After more than seven decades in power ruling Sovyet-Union, the “socialistic economic system” or popularly called “socialism” proved fail to fulfill the expectation of many Russian. The system cannot elevate the wealth of common people across the vast country. The ideology was already worn out, and to fool sons and daughters of the soil with the indoctrination of communist orthodoxy, instead of urging them be smart and intelligent; prevented the individual freedom to spring up, and against the human rights.
Although country in crisis, the Sovyet-Union remain one of world’s super power, leader of the East Block, then by itself disintegrate from earth and became history. In its place, some countries emerged, one of which was the Russian Soviet Federativ Socialist Republic (RSFSR) led by B. N. Boris Yeltsin, became a democratic country again. Latter accepted back the “capitalistic economic system” responsible for the wealth of Russian people formerly laid down by Tsar Nicolas II, to get the country economic system back in order ever since been tattered.
Although the Sovyet-Union survived 72 years, from 1917 until 1989, then trying hard to prove that “socialism” leading to “communism” will persists on earth surface as taught by the orthodox communist ideology, but in reality it failed.
Socialism did not have superiority whatsoever over capitalism in various field involving science and technology, especially their application to improve the wellbeing of Russian citizen. In comparison with the German and Japan, both being bombarded and heavily damaged in second World War, later came up as the second and third world’ s economic power after the United States of America, while almost at the same period Sovyet-Union turned into history.
Superpower of the Eastern Block challenging superpower of the Western Blok was unsteady when dealing with Chernobyl disaster happened on April 26, 1986. Assistance getting rid of nuclear fallout came mostly from the capitalistic countries instead of satellites countries of common ideology. Expertise on nuclear technology to overcome radioactive radiation also arrived from the non-socialist nation. Baring in mind, at time of disaster “cold war” between West-Block and Eastern-Block was not over yet.
Socialism did not have any solutions to: waste-gases expelled to atmosphere around the world, polluted-water drained to earth’s water bodies across the globe, as well as scraps of metals from produtct or commodity. The latter littered elsewhere on the earth surface: from households to various industries, including mines in the rurals, etc.; the capitalism was facing ever since the outbreak of the industrial revolution in Europe.
After the fall of Sovyet-Union, people at large then had the apportunity to know news over mismanagement of environment and ecosystem damage in countries with socialistic economy system, ever since known to be: the iron curtain.
Same mismanagement were also unveiled in the Red Bear satellites countries, due to long time isolation from the open world for ideological reason. The socialistic economic system was the lack effort to develop environment concern and issues. Some of the non-block countries were trying to accept the socialistic economic system for their countries, due trauma of the colonial times, and fell into burocrat handling of things including environment causing unavoidable loss of the precious natural resources. Then non-block countries discard the inefficient socialistic economic system, and returned “capitalistic economic system” of widely accepted, but managed by a democratic government.
c. Romantic Economic System
Industrial revolution was emerged in Europe, spread to North America, then Japan, and the rest of the world, received fierce resistance from its opposition in the country of origin, by some circles among them: writer, community of intellectual, poet, artist, artisan, and others. The group of people apposing the emergence of industrial revolution driven by business people and the entrepreneur in Europe at the time got a name: the romantics.
The romantic voiced their thought and concern over impact of industrial revolution on living environment in their country by writing articles, reading poems, reading poems, and others. Caricatures were been drawn to show their dislike, and demonstrations were carried out along with theatrical expression on main streets, and so on.
The romantics wanted to keep harmonious relation between human being and the environment where people spent their live at the time, and defended their right armored with skill in arts and culture inherited by use of language. What the romantics wanted, was the opposition with giant machines and large building beginning to rise in their surroundings that time. “Dark Satanic Mills” written by William Blake, and the novel “Frankenstein” was written by Marry Shelley, were some of the many writings sending message to the world about their concern on science and technology having two faces; the good and the bad.
The words spoken and demonstration expressed were manifestations of the romantics to show dislike with industrial revolution. The romantics never attempt to establish a country with a government responsible for the wealth of its citizen, such: “capitalism” and the “socialism”. That is why there was no description over “romantic economic system” responsible for the wealth of its people were ever written, except the genuine desire to maintain the ecosystem on earth surface that had been evolved so far.
Pollution on Earth Surface
Pollution of earth surface is not a new issue. It already happen since thousads of years coming from a variety of reason, like the euption of volcano bursting smokes into earth’s atmosphere, draining hot lava with stones, the flowing cold lava when its rains, and so on.
There are pollutions created by tsunami caused by earth’s continental plate movement causing tsunami to happen. There are great flood caused by heavy rainfall on some part of the earth caused by the global warming. Also regular flood on coastal region when the sun and moon on to the same side of earth.
Natural disaster do cause environment around places where people live on earth surface be physically destroyed and contaminated with various chemical elements, from common to dangerous, and very dangerous to the health of human and living things, not to exclude the radioactive. The risk emerging from such a disaster may involved lost of life, valuable belongings, rice fields, dry fields, and the environment around that cannot be exploited any more used for a long stretch of time.
German and Japan after the World War-II found destructions on environmental caused by the heavy bombardments inflicted by the American ally. On the latter two atom bombs were added been dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killing many lifes. The last two bombs causing not physical damage, but a lengthy radioactive radiation unseen by the eyes that threat the life of human being. Not long ago, already in the third millennium, talks in media about radioactive leak to water environment emerging from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in Japan still reminding people about nuclear pollution to human surrounding.
The threat to atmospheric environment blanketing blue planet was a disaster happened in Bhopal, in the state of Madya Pradesh, India, causing thousands death. At night December 2-3, 1984, “methyl isocyanate” gas found leak to earth atmosphere from a chemical plant not far from nearby slump dwelling. Thousands of dwellers were found the next day, never to wake up in the morning anymore, because they were already dead, poisoned by the inhalation poisonous gas.
In the year 2008 alone, it is reported an amount of 29.000.000.000.000 metic-ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) had been expelled into the atmosphere around the blue planet to pollute the air. The dangerous gas came from various industries producing commodities or products as well as services required by the earth’s inhabitants, not excluding the various transport carrying people on land, on water, and through the air, carrying goods and passengers for the talking year.
Acid rain appeared in European continent caused by steam power plant generating electricity burning solid fuel releasing smokes containing sulfur. Last chemical element when mixed with water from the rain wetting leaves in nearby woods turn them yellow and become dry then fall to the ground.
During the Vietnam war, Uncle Sam country was trying hard to halt infiltration of Vietcong crossing border between North Vietnam and South Vietnam by spreading certain chemical element when mixed with rain water turned into yellow-rain. With the yellow vegetation around the border will die causing the Vietcong got short supply of food during the territorial crossing, but later were found that pregnant women drinking water or eating food from the area contaminated by the yellow rain, then gave birth to babies with abnormal limbs as well as other undesired symptom.
In Sakura country, a Minimata disease was once unveiled. The disease found due to pollution effected by a chemical element in periodic table known: mercury. Rivers were polluted with mercury been drain to sea causing fishes in the waters around being contaminated with mercury in their bodies. Mothers who eat fish caught from the contaminated waters give birth to an unhealthy baby, because element remain in food if cooked, and get transferred into the body when eaten. Mercury is one of such unfriendly element to human being, causing NLT programs alter or mutate, making the abnormal birth of baby and others.
Same element also polluted rivers in some part of Indonesia, where people mine the gold in the upstream region and mercury used to separate precious metal from its dirt. The pollutant coming from mine-waste drained into these rivers causing surface of the rice field to harden, making uneasy to replant the rice field for next harvest.
One of so many example of radioactive pollution, what had caused Alexander Livinenko from Rusia died no long ago. According to the reported news, he had exposed to radioactive Plutonium 210 (Po-210) emanating a continuous alpha radiation hided by an irresponsible person.
One of the research conducted by the University of Chicago, United States of America, had shown the correlation between the level of pesticide in a living environment with autism, as well as intellectual disability (ID) of a new born baby in that surrounding. It seem, that a level of pesticide pollution in a human environment may cause cold organic chemistry of NLT program taking place in the baby’s body get disturbed.
Still many other environmental pollution that can happen on earth surface done by human hands, such the sinking of Exxon Valdez tanker in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on March 24, 1989. The destined for Long Beach, California, United States of America, all of a sudden collide with the Bligh reef on the way, causing 260,000 to 750,000 barrels of crude oil to spill, creating one of the worst environmental disasters ever known by man so far.
Various pollutant from human living environment on earth surface may get into human body, by inhalation at time of breathing with human lungs, when air and waste-gases and minute particles where taken inside. Second by the drinking of liquids and eating foods of various kind containing pollutant of dangerous to health even poisonous. The third by having activities in a dangerous environment for the most of one live.
As already mentioned previously, at beginning industrial revolution considered a blessing to human being, with the various innovations making life on earth surface became easy. Later, after more than two centuries time had elapsed, a “climate change” was unveiled, wind gusting with very high velocity was found, columns of high waves introducing disaster on water as well as over land were found, etc. Moslem from every corner of the world then aware of a “warning” written Sūrah Ar-Rum, Verse 41, written in Al-Quran ul-Karim, about true “meaning” of the the following words:
“Corruption doth appear on land and sea because of (the evil) which man’s hands have done, that He may make them taste a part of that which they have done, in order that they may return”.
It seems that the “warning” in Sūrah Ar-Rum, Verse 41, is in force now working to do evil things on earth surface by industrial revolution created by man. And, a taste a part of what they have done, injuncting human being return back to the era, before a “great change” happened on earth surface.
Industrial revolution initiated with the innovation of “steam powered engine” introduced by Thomas Savery (1650-1715) from England, Europe, then challenged to create a water-pump for use in a mine. He invented a pump with a vessel pump, and patented it. Thomas Newcomen (1664-1729), Savery’s fellowman, found a shortcoming in the pump, and replaced the vessel with reciprocating piston in a cylinder also for the same purpose. Later James Watt (1736-1819) also other fellowman capitalized both invention took the opportunity to build a “rotating steam engine”, combining ideas of both fellowmen for industrial use. The steam engine was in demand by the country including the one being use to power the first railway transport between Stockton and Darlington in England proposed by George Stephenson (1781-1848), use to drink water and burn solid fuel called coal.
The steam engine invented by James Watt was a “double-package” type, having scientific name: External Combustion Engine, shorten ECE. The “first package” was allocated to boil water to get steam pressure (potential-energy) in a vessel or commonly called boiler by burning solid fuel outside, while the “second package” comprising: piston, cylinder, and crankshaft, to convert the potential energy of steam inside the boiler into mechanical energy demanded by various industry, like: transport, factory, mining, etc. Coals then mined from below the earth surface from tens to hundreds of meters in depth, while water was gathred from well or river in nearby.
From Belgium another European country, Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900) in 1860 introduced a “single package” combustion engine later called Internal Combustion Engine, shorten ICE; with jump spark ignition. The fuel been used was a liquid easily change into gas called benzene, chiefly obtained from coal. Due to high pressure gas to push the piston down may be achieved right inside the cylinder by ignition instantly, ICE did not require a boiler to get high pressure gas in the place of the high pressure steam, then the Watt’s “double-package” engine can be reduced into a “single-package” engine.
Consequently, ICE need smaller space for same power, take little room inside a vehicle, lighter, also cheaper. To get benzene for ICE, instead of extracting from coal, crude oil known as petroleum must being drilled from the earth belly thousands of meters in depth, to be processed in an oil refinery to get benzene. Two years later in Germany, another European country, Nikolaus Otto introduced ICE with carburetor and electric ignition, called: gasoline engine. In 1900, his fellowman Rudolf Diesel also introduced ICE with compression ignition called bearing his name: a diesel engine.
Contrary to Natural Live Technology (NLT) involving “heat converter” with low or body temperature for living things introduced by Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful; mankind from the early industrial revolution in Europe making use “heat convertor” of unorganic chemistry with very high combustion temperature thousand degrees of Centigrade, then be spread around the world. This high temperature unorganic chemistry gave birth to the “Source of Mechanical Energy”, shorten SoME, converting “heat” of very high temperature fuel combustion into “mechanical energy”, in demand by industries comprising of: one ECE called: “steam engine” and two ICE known to be: “gasoline-engine” and “diesel engine”.
A machine made to convert “heat” into “motion” or mechanical rotation known: “Thermo Mechanical Convertor”, shorten TMC, also called: “combustion engines”, because it burns fossil fuel. Such a machine burn various fuels, like solid (coal), liquid, gaseous, by way an un-organic chemistry, to liberate “heat” of a very high temperature producing high pressure gas. Machines that were introduced by industrial revolution in Europe to consist of: an ECE having a boiler for generating the high pressure steam by burning solid fuel outside the cylinder, and ICE burning liquid fuel or gas fuel right inside the cylinder to generate high temperature and pressure gas, but without the need of boiler and water at all. The “high pressure steam” or the “high pressure gas” become the first element of new invention, while cylinder along with rod and crankshaft become the second element of new invention, to introduce a “machine” or “source of mechanical energy” that has altered human civilization around the world. It was also the time when man be able to convert “heat” (thermal power) measured in calorie/sec., into “mechanical power” comprising: “torque” in m-N with “angular velocity” in rad/sec., to run industry and transportation ever since around the globe.
The two elements of invention can also to surface in various other communities of another countries and on another part of the world, if respected people aware of the knowledge and science that had been spread by Allah, the Beneficent, and the Merciful, across the Universe in general, on earth surface in particular, like physics, mathematics, and the others. Almost all people everywhere across the globe know, that water gain pressure if heated, and combustive gas can explode if ignited, are truly a real a fact. Paying attention to spiritual and religious live perse in the course of life, ignoring the importance of paying attention to mundanely live, it is not possible for a community wherever they live to develop machines based on knowledge and science to elevate the quality of life the human being on earth surface.
Already described in Sūrah Ar-Rad (The Thunder), Verse 11, was saying:
For him are angels raged before him and behind him, who guard him by Allah command.3 Lo! Allah changeth not the condition of a folk until they (first) change that which is in their hearts; and if Allah willeth misfortune for a folk, there is not that can repel it, nor have they a defender beside Him.
3 This is taken by some commentators to refer to “him who goeth freely in the day time” in the previous verse. In that case it would read: “for whom are guards before him and behind him as if to guard against Allah’s commandment”.
[Quote from the Glorious Qur’an, an explanatory translated by Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall. Islamic Book Trust, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2001]
The Thermo Mechanical Convertor (TMC) introduced by industrial revolution in Europe create the first Source of Mechanical Energy (SoME) of independent nature, and produced motion to various industry around the world; an intelligent invention, beginning from England in United Kingdom, followed by Belgium, and completed by Germany. The invention lets the human civilization acquired a terminology called: “mesin” (Indonesia), “engine” (English), and “maschine” (German) for a SoME, then been spread to all corners of the world.
Although ECE and ICE were so beneficial to industries right from the beginning of industrial revolution, but the majority of “heat” liberated by combustion fuels measured in “calorie” was wasted. Only a faction (minority) of “heat” from combustion of various fuel was converted into motion (mechanic) running the various industries such as: land transport, water transport, and air transport.
That is why engines developed by the industrial revolution were all inefficient because wasting most heat, because most of “calories” liberated from combustion of fuel littered to environment rather than converted to motion. Translated into the fuel consumption, most fuel thrown away littering the environment as compared with the portion converted into motion.
An example, an ECE driven locomotive pulling railway passenger carriages from Jakarta to Surabaya consume about 10% of “heat” liberated by the combustion of coals carried to destination, while the remaining 90% of “heat” thrown away to environment to raise air temperature around. Translated into coal consumption, only 10% coals by weight carried really required to carry the train to its destination, while remaining 90% just thrown away littering the environment along the track.
Other example, a motorbike or car run by ICE, dissipated 75% of the “heat” produced by the combustion of gasoline into the environment just to raise air temperature around, and about 25% of “heat” of fuel combustion really to carry the rider with his/her motorbike or the driver with his/her car to destination. Translated into fuel consumption, only about 25% of gasoline by weight or volume carried by a motorbike or car required to carry motorbike with the rider or car with the driver to destination, while the rest 75% thrown away to the environment littering the road behind.
These are the reason why, a motorbike, or car, or bus, or train, or ocean liner, or aircraft, etc., run by ICE; also not to exclude the various factory and industry run by similar engine, consume liquid fuel wastefully. This is due to fact, only about 25% of “heat” generated by the combustion of fuel such: gasoline, diesel fuel, and others, appear in the cylinders instantly was worth to carry the passenger with vehicle to destination; or do useful work in factory and industry, while the remaining 75 % just thrown away to the environment heating the air around.
The combusted fuel, either a portion of doing useful works or component just thrown away to environment to raise air temperature, coming from a vehicle, either traveling on land, on water, or through the air, later known as a “carbon footprint” of a vehicle run by ECE and ICE. Carbon footprint is that sort of pollution made bay the mean of transport introduced by the industrial revolution to environment around the earth surface, measured in “gram” for every kilometer travelled by a type of vehicle. Therefore a passenger vehicle, whatever brand name, of various number of wheels run by ECE or ICE, that burn: solid fuel, liquid fuel, or gaseous fuel, will pollute the earth environment with “carbon footprint” measured in x gram/km. As an example, passenger car of a certain brand name, pollute the earth surface with 185 gr/km.
The gas expelled by ICE burning various liquid fuel: nitrogen (N2), water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), although they are not poisonous, but the last one contribute to earth global warming. Among gases unwelcome to earth atmosphere: carbon mono-oxide (CO), hydrocarbon (CxHy), and nitrogen-oxide (NOx).
Now, after more than two centuries industrial revolution came into existence, the steam engine, gasoline engine, and the diesel engine, remain inefficient as ever. This is due to fact that many universities around the world encountering difficult engine technology research and remain little progress was gained to save the fuel consumption problem.
The carbon footprint now witnessed by the Chinese people floating in the air over their big cities of the Bamboo Curtain country, such: Beijing, Shanghai, and others and effect breathing of their citizen. Such a threat will also come in Indonesia, if the natives unable to take steps in the planning of country to get rid of problem threatening the nation.
The Man Made Volcano
There are three categories of wastes polluting human living environment on earth surface coming from “matters (materials)” emigrating from the earth’s belly to the surface affected by the human activities. First, gases along with minute particles coming from the combustion fuels for the production of goods (merchandises) and services, like in: steel factory, machine industry, car industry, shipping industry, aeronautical industry, transports, mines, refineries, oil drilling from on land to offshore, small and big economic cooperative of various nature, and many others. All activity involving the use of millions of ECE and ICE expelling gases with minute particles into the blue planet’s atmosphere filled with air. Second, polluted-water been drained by various industries producing goods and services mentioned earlier, including same water drained by small and big cities around the world, drained into water bodies, such as: canals, ponds, rivers, lakes, seas, that ended into oceans. Third, the various industrial goods and mechandise having its economic useful live came to end became scraps, like: cars, vehicles, trains, ships from river to oceans, the various aircraft, a variety military equipments and munitions, computers, all kind smart phones with various electronic gadgets, also refuse coming from town to cities around the world, etc., littered on earth surface. With the earth population around 7.000.000.000 people steadily on rising with time, the quantity of matter (material) emigrating the earth’s belly to the surface in billion tonnes also on the rise with time.
a. Pollution of Earth Atmosphere
A motorbike rider glance a fuel indicator and drove to nearby gas station. From the tank with help of modern technology, liquid fuel been injected into the cylinder. After being mixed with the air then being ignited. An explosion happened in the cylinder, “heat” liberated, and a high pressure gases occurred in second to push the “piston” down. With help of a pair of connecting rod with crankshaft, the linear motion of a piston been converted into a rotary motion of axle. Then, a chain be used to transfer rotary motion of the axle to the rear wheel, causing motorbike to move. There must be many explosions to occur in the engine cylinder to get the motorbike with its rider to destination. By the adjustment of cylinder volume, from the dimensions to its number, and the right type of fuel, power developed by the engine may be modified with ease to suite various type vehicle.
That was how industrial revolution in Europe had innovated the Thermo Mechanical Convertor (TMC) to develop a Source of Mechanical Energy (SoME) then, making use very simple “physics” causing the human civilization on earth surface across the globe drastically been changed for more than two centuries until now. Moreover, the innovation was motivated by water-pump by chance introduced by Thomas Savery, then perfected by Thomas Newcomen with another water-pump, causing James Watt got the opportunity to introduce the first “double package” TMC for SoME known as MPL for use in industry; all of them came from England, the United Kingdom. Then came up J.E. Lenoir from Belgium with the idea of a “single package” TMC also for use SoME called ICE, for use in industry. A well build “single-package” ICE is in fact a “heat generator of a controlled explosion” burning fuel-air mixture right in the engine cylinders for conversion into “mechanical energy” to run industries, like transport, factory, etc. The opposite, is an “un-controlled explosion heat generator” built carelessly also burning fuel-air mixture; and if ignited making a bomb to explode, destroying everything around.
A variety of industry later mushroomed on the earth surface, right from that historical moment around the world introducing work opportunities to citizens in every countries, to introduce the mean of transport of various kind: on land, on water, and though the air; for civilian or military purposes, etc. And the culture of travelling from going on foot or ride on animal back, or carriage drawn by tame aniamls like: horse, buffalo, etc., across the world terminated, and been replaced by engine driven transport never ever been imagined by people before.
Many cultures in various region or sub-region of earth surface, so far isolated by long distance opened, and came in contact causing conflicts with the traditional culture, such: social, economic, politics, security, to surface and flare up in various region of the world.
After first explosion, engine the cylinder must to be cleaned prior to the next fuel injection be mixed with air following to next ignition; also same with every explosion come afterwards. The cleaning of engine cylinder causing “combustion gas” been released to earth atmosphere blanketing the blue planet, The combustion gas, also known as “exhaust gases” leaving engine cylinder was first introduced by industrial revolution, and ever since on the rise the quantity since then until today.
Now the exhaust gases emanating from thousands, millions, billions, trillions, and even more number of explosions take place in engine cylinders running so many transports and various industries around the world. Because there is no technology to send these unused gases back into earth’s belly from where it came from, after some part or about 25%, of useful “heat” been extracted for conversion into motion required by motorbike with its rider, or vehicle with passengers; these gases with the rest 75% of “heat” been discharged into the earth atmosphere.
The combustion gas then turn into “waste gases” and expelled not just by various transport: on land, on water, and through the air; but also by countless factory and industry now in operation on earth and running: steam engine, gasoline engine, and diesel engine, being used to produce goods (merchandises) and services, and disposed into the earth atmosphere. The amount of waste-gases expelled by these engines steadily on the rise proportional with engine number and engine size also its operating schedule every day, scattered across continents and islands the world over. In addition to pollution emerging from the fuel burning: solid, liquid, and gaseous; there are also pollution coming from “additives” purposely introduced to engine fuel and its lubricant. Addition of lead (Pb) to gasoline required reduce engine knocking, while additive to lubricants to enhance engine performance, but little attention paid to human health so far.
As already been explained before, waste gases expelled into atmosphere around blue planet, emerging from many industries, like transports, manufacturing, etc. The annual amount of waste- gases already measured in “Trillion metric-ton”, depends on: cylinder volume, number of cylinder, engine revolution, power generated by each engine, number of ECE and ICE been put to operation continuously every day in a year across the globe, producing goods and services across the blue planet.
Bare in mind, the earth surface consists of land and water, has combine area of: 510 million km2. It said three quarter of air by weight in the atmosphere blanketing the blue planet lies at 11.000 m (11 km) above sea level. Mount Everest lies at 8.848 m above the sea level, while the highest point on earth where people can live is at 5.500 m above sea level, and at this altitude human lungs ability to gather oxygen from the surrounding air by volume been curtailed to 50%. Then the mass of most air volume in the atmosphere banketed blue planet is: 5,610 Billion km3. With the everage earth diameter: 12.740 km, the earth volume been estimated to be about 1.082,148051226 Billion km3. And ratio between the Volume of Air (VoA) in the atmosphere and the Volume of Earth (VoE) in percentage gives:
VoA/VoE x 100% = 0.52%
From the given figure, it was found that the earth atmosphere blanketed the blue planet is a thin layer of air, or be called a “film of air”. Because it is so thin, it is so vulnerable to matter (material) migrating from the earth belly to its surface introduced by industrial revolution.
To give a better picture on vulnerability of air blanketing the blue planet, imagine a “big ball” 100 m in diameter been put on the center of a football stadium, to represent earth at a reduced dimension. Then, get a short plastic ruler to touch it at right angle from one end of the ruler. Then, most air mass in the atmosphere blanketing the “big ball” will read at 8.63 cm from the surface. Looking at the earth at reduced dimension from one corner of the stadium, one may get the impression on how small the “air film” really is, and convinced about its vulnerable to matters (materials) leaving the belly migrating to its surface without end, the quantity of which rising consistently with time, knowing no stop. But for whom, looking to the sky right from the same corner of stadium will never be convinced, that matters (materials) leaving earth belly migrating to its earth surface without stop, steadily rising with time introduced by mankind, will ever harm the air in the earth atmosphere due vastness of the sky above.
What will judge these controversial points of views, depends on education background of every viewer along with his/her reasoning ability of one was sitting in the stadium.
If air film around blue planet be supposed to equivalent air inside a garage with all door closed, in which a car with open windows and the engine still running. Slowly but sure, the air in the garage will be polluted by the exhaust gases, causing people inside the car been choked. For those who are sitting in the car there is still a way out, if someone outside the garage knows what had happened in his surrounding, and immediately open garage doors by force. For the human being as well as other living thing living on earth surface similar help cannot be expected.
b. The Pollution of Water Bodies
A variety industry producing goods and services including transport, refinary, etc., households from small town to big cities across the world require clean-water for their basic daily necessity. Clean-water after being involved in a process such: mixing, screening, washing, cleansing, sedimenting, radiation, etc.; clean-water turn into polluted-water or dirty-water, and cannot be used again, drained into the surrounding water bodies.
Vast amount of clean-water been used also by various mining, such: coal, petroleum, excavation of precious mineral, etc.; right from: digging of ores, drilling of wells, requred transport, as well as the refinery and required packging involve. Demand for clean-water in these businesses steadily on the rise due to demand of energy, various mineral, and metal ores in world market are increasing with time.
A problem arises when the dirty-water or polluted-water from household, various businesses and industry drained into water bodies, such: pond, canal, river, sea, and ocean around the world. With the earth population steadily on the rise with time, and the economic activities continuously spreading around the globe, the volume of polluted-water steadily increase with time many fold.
Water the largest constituent of matter in body of most living thing, like: human being, animal, and plant; therefore polluted-water is dangerous to their health. This is why a Water Purification Plant (WPP) and Water Treatment Plant (WTP) are required to treat dirty-water or polluted-water back into clean-water or fresh-water. Only clean water or drink water is allowed be drained to living environment, such: pond, canal, river, sea, and ocean, anywhere across the world.
Having WPP and WTP for use from household to various business and industry all earth dents creating water bodies across the globe may be avoided from all kind pollution coming from human activities in mundanely live, such as: household, business, and industry making use large amout of clean-water of fresh-water.
c. The Pollution of Land Surface
Various industrial product like machinaries, vehicles, trains, airplanes, ships from river to ocean’ etc., when their economic value come to end turn into refuse called waste or refuse. Same for house hold articles such: furniture, kitchen tools, cars, motorbike, bicycle, etc. Various waste or refuse of industrial origin come also from mines, such: coal mines, oil drilling and refinary, gold mines, ores mines, etc., littered the earth surface on various part of the blue planet. Entering the 21th large quantity of electronic and digital equipments and gadgets, become the millennium waste to litter the land surface everywhere across the blue planet.
The Eruption of Man Made Volcano
From what has been mentioned, gasoline before arrived at gas station was “crude oil” being processed in a refinery. The crude oil before be processed in a refinery, was crude oil in earth’s belly thousands of meter in depth. Gasoline ends up became “exhaust gases” expelled by ICE into earth atmosphere to turn waste-gases polluting the air. Also same with clean-water been contaminated to became “dirty-water” or water-waste. The latter came from the manufacturing of a variety of product and services in factories and industries, plants; as well as the extraction of natural resources such: coal, oil, mineral ores, etc. Dirty water also came from the cleaning of: cars, vehicles, locomotives and railway carriages, aircrafts, ships; the cleansing of hospitals, etc.; and the like. Water-waste came also from households on earth surface around theworld, such: village, small town up to big city; were mostly drain right into earth’s water body so far.
Finally all sort of things, such as: cars, vehicles, locomotives along with its railway carriages, various aircrafts, a variety of ships from river to ocean, turn into metal of various metal scraps or “solid-waste”. Also same worn out mines, like: coal, oil and its refinery, various mines of ores, heavy machinery, variety drilling installation, heavy equipment and transportation, processing plant, etc., with their economic value already been to zero. Not to forget the “solid-waste” coming from households of daily lives littered anywhere around the world.
From what been elaborated previously, it was found matter (material) migrating from earth its belly to the surface affected by man since outbreak of the industrial revolution, truly ends up as: “waste-gases”, “waste-water”, and “solid-waste”. All wastes cannot be return back to where they came from: after “heat” being extracted from the burning fuel; after “clean water” been consumed by the various industry and service; after economic benefit of various products and services came to end. All matter (material) migrating from the earth belly now end up on earth surface polluting air in the earth atmosphere, water body around the globe, and all land surfaces.
From what been explained reminded people on the explotion of some kind volcano, a volcano introduced by man. This is due to that fact, “waste-gases” been expelled into the earth’s atmosphere is equivalent with smokes expelled by a volcano eruption. And the “water-waste“ was equivqlent with the cold lava draine by a volcano eruption into its surrounding area when it rains, much like Lapindo’s mud volcano in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. While “solid-waste” is equivalent with the materials expelled by volcano eruption, like: ashes, sand, and stone of various form and size.
With emergence of industrial revolution, beginning in Europe more than two centuries ago, then spread around the world, these three type of wastes it had been midwifed ever since, may be said to be originated from the eruption of a Man Made Volcano”, shorten MMV.
Please bare in mind, volcanoes although their number are so many on earth surface, if erupted will come to end after a length of time, and will again repeat eruption in years or tens of years to come in the future. On the contrary with earth volcano, MMV erupts every days along the year, and every year of a century, and explodes continuously ever since the outbreak of industrial revolution, because it knows no stop even for one second.
Considering philosophy and science had been develop for so long in Middle East, back by the vast trading among countries in that region. Also various contacts from the many nations of the area for so long period of time, in comparison with the rest of earth surface, a question may raised to mind then, why “industrial revolution” did not start from that part of the world? One possible reason might be, Middle East had been involved with very complicated political dealing of various turmoil for centuries including religion causing the region to become infertile ground for innovation as simple the one from England, United Kingdom, to alter the face of world civilization then.
On the other hand, Europe, particularly England in United Kingdom, although mostly remain “villages” by then, still in pease far from the turmoil of Middle East type, back by well grounded intellectual applied knowledge and a booming trade. By then the continent was a fertile land for the birth of new invention such as the one introduced by Thomas Savery (1650-1715). He filled a vessel with steam at atmospheric pressure, and suddenly cooled it with spray of water, causing a vacuum to develop inside the vessel causing water to suck into the vessel to fill it. He built the first “water pump” driven by a vacuum in the world, and patented it. Thomas Newcomen (1664-1729), one of Savery fellowman found a shortcoming of the pump, and introduce a water pump with cylinder and a moving piston inside instead of a vessel, also driven by a vacuum. James Watt (1736-1819), another Savery fellowman seized the opportunity to introduce what was later known as “double package” steam engine: the first package destined for building steam pressure called a boiler, and the second package for conversion “steam energy” stored inside the boiler into motion or ”mechanical energy”. James Watt made use the invention of both his fellowmen, the first “source of mechanical energy” for use in industry, the first convertor in the world for conversion “heat” into “mechanical energy”, popularly known as a “steam engine”.
From Belgium, Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900) came up with “single package” engine popularly called “combustion engine”, because it burning an easily evaporated liquid fuel by a spark ignition, became the world lightest source of mechanical energy for use in industry.
From Germany, Nikolaus Otto introduced the first “combustion engine” with carburetter and electric ignition; the first in the world an easy to use “gasoline engine” for industry. Later in 1900, Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913) also from Germany introduced the first “compression ignition” engine with fuel injection to burn liquid fuel, called “diesel engine”. A series of “technology card domino” were tumbling down ever since TMC turned into SoME been unveiled by industrial revolution in the world emerging from Europe more than two centuries ago. From that historical moment, mankind became familiar with TMC and SoME were then new, emerging from United Kingdom, followed by Belgium, and completed by Germany; all introduce what was then called: “engine” in United Kingdom, “maschine” in Germany, and “mesin” in Indonesia; then spread to North America, later Japan, and later to all corner of the world, including Indonesia.
After more than two centuries has elapsed, mankind later came to aware, that SoME emerging from TMC was introduced by industrial revolution in Europe, become the “main cause” of every pollution to human and other living thing environment on earth surface, beginning: atmosphere, water bodies, and land surface. Scientiest from all over the world, from West to East, now beginning to evaluate the situation, and try to find ways to overcome the negative effect of industrial revolution to human living environment on earth surface, had been warned inside the message of: “Sūrah Ar-Rum, Verse 41”, of the Holy Al-Quran.
The Atmospheric Pollution
To get rid air pollution enter earth atmosphere blanketed the blue planet by exhaust gases expelled by the various industry along with transportation burning Fossil Fuel, shorten FF, like: coal, gasoline, and natural gases, city dwellers concerned from around the globe since outbreak of the industrial revolution. John Brokis from the General Motors Technical Division in 1970, came up with the idea burning “hydrogen gas” for fuel, or “Hydrogen Fuel”, shorten HF. Hydrogen is an abundant chemical element that can be used to run industry and transport on earth surface cleanly. Various countries can migrate run economy from the burning of “fossile fuel” into burning of “hydrogen fuel” to get rid of air in the atmosphere blanketted the blue planet been polluted, because the exhaust gases release to earth environment by the latter only water vapour. With the blue planet economy run by hydrogen, a portion of matter (material) emigrating from earth belly to the surface causing air pollution since the outbreak of industrial revolution being eliminated.
As pioneer toward cleaning the earth atmosphere from using fossil fuel, came up several Nordic countries, also from the outside of Middle East region. Leader of the Island been inspired by John Bockris from the United States of America, and proclaim Island to be the first country in the world to implement “hydrogen-powered economy”. To get HF for use in the country, the neighbour of the North Pole rely on electricity generated by the Geothermal Electric Power Station (GEPS) abundant in the country, to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Public transportation powered by hydrogen fuel being tested in the capital Reykjavik, to be followed by electric car driven by fuel cell consuming only hydrogen fuel.
Another Nordic country, also outside Middle East getting busy with “hydrogen-powered economy” is Sweden. Instead of making use geothermal, the latter country relied on electricity generated by the farming of solar panel. The western region of the country has been prepared for the development of a pollution free environment, especially the harbor and the SAAB vehicle industry by using hydrogen as fuel.
Other Nordic country not willing been left behind is Danemark. Nakskov, the mayor of the island of Lolland established a cooperation between the fuel cell developer called IRD, and an organization in the country known as: “Baltic Sea Solution”. The latter is in fact the Danemark society itself, where group of people arrange themselves to become community for testing the likelihood of fuel cell technology getting along with hydrogen-powered economy” of the country; also preparing the required facilities.
In the South East Asia, Indonesia is also outside the Middle East region. With vast natural resources like geothermal, even directly come from many active volcanoes, and to farm solar cell right from earth equator, etc., should not be left behind by the few Nordic countries.
Although Indonesia, can no longer be a “pioneer” cleaning the earth atmosphere in the region, but Indonesia with rich in human resources, and educated, has the opportunity to become a “motor” of the hydrogen-powered economy of South East Asian region having global impact, but the country choose another course. Although since December 30 1949, Indonesia already been a free country, and recognized by all countries in the United Nation, called: “ The Republik Indonesia Serikat” (RIS), but right from beginning, the country was experimenting with: “Guided Democracy”, indoctrinating its citizen with: TUBAPI, scissoring Rupiah, and double devaluate the currency, causing the country’s economy to plunge into chaos. Then the country took another adventure called: “Pancasila Democracy”, and indoctrinating people with: BP7. And in 1997 Indonesia suddenly infected by economic crisis coming from Thailand, causing Rupiah to spin out of control for a along period of time, causing country’s economy recover latest among all other neighbor that were infected by crisis; before a “reformation” came up in 1998 to save the country’s economy back on its feet.
As the result of these adventures, Indonesia lost early development of social, economic, and cultural, of precious value after World War-II more than half a century, far lagging behind the South Korea destroyed in peninsula war, freed July 27, 1953. Also with respect of the various neighbor countries, such: Malaysia freed in 1957, Singapore freed in 1965, Brunai Darussalam freed in 1984; in a variety fields of live, welfare of the people, as well as the human rights.
The History of Education
As has earlier been mentioned, Islam came to nusantara (Indonesia) in South East Asian region brought by mubalighs or the religious preachers as well as business traders. They then established mosques and surau or pray house for the religious service, also as places for teaching the new religion. “Madrasah” or Islamic Bording School came up in many regions of South East Asia not to exclude the nusantara. After the Indonesian independence, madrasah being renamed “Pondok Pesantren”, and abbreviated: “Ponpes”.
The subject taught in madrasahs in the South East Asian region including nusantara, are mainly: Islamic religion, Islamic belief, Islamic law, Islamic values, and so forth, which are found in Al-Quran, in Hadis, and other Islamic books, by way local language in Arabic writing. Since then the “local tongue” and “bahasa Melayu” (Malay language) were written in Arabic was born in the South East Asian region, well known by most learning people.
On entering 20th century, the European colonialists, such as: United Kingdom, France, and Dutch, who had already colonies in the South East Asian region, were introducing new programs, popularly called ethical program four their colonies. That was the reason why colonial powers wanted to introduce Western Education to the natives living in their colonies to run a variety program.
In nusantara, the Duch colonial power had introduced “Government School” for the “inlander” or native people, later becaming “Sekolah Melayu”, or Malay School. The school intended to bread human power from local origin to work in the government offices, teacher for the Sekolah Melayu, administrator of various plantations, and many others, making use of cheap labour from inhabitant of the colony.
The subjects taught in Sekolah Melayu at the time, mainly: writing, reading, counting, along with general knowhow. The teaching language been used are: “local tongue” and “bahasa Melayu” in Latin Writing of Dutch choice. In such a way, the local tongue and bahasa Melayu in Latin Writing were born in the region.
The Dutch colonial government further developed the education it had introduced in nusantara further into education system comprising: middle school and high school much like in Europe, along with university in the island of Java. On the other hand, madrasah and ponpes only followed education system available in Middle East region.
Although western education system introduced by Dutch Government during colonial period had evolved into “Sistim Pendidikan Nasional” (National Education System), consisting: Sekolah Rakyat (Elementary School), Sekolah Menengah Pertama (First Middle School), Sekolah Menengah Atas (Middle High School), and the University, after the country acquired its independence. Also same with “madrasah” or “ponpes”, with the introduction of subjects, like: science, business, economy, management, applied science, and technology, national ideology, etc., into their curriculum. But the “Sistim Pendidikan Nasional”, as a unified educational system in Indonesia, due born with different historical background, remain to “indicate” a diverse worldview among their alumnus. There remain in public generally an “understanding” of what is known to be: “ahli dzikir” (divine oriented mind) on one side, with what is called: “kaum intellektual“ (mundanely oriented mind) on the other, and still keep a distance ever since.
The Dynamic Source of Mechanical Energy
Universe is the greatest mechanical system known to men. That is why living things on the blue planet, are part of the great mechanic system. Every thing on the earth surface, live or dead, requires energy to get to motion. Human, animal, and plant, exploiting “heat” derived from the combustion of carbohydrate of low or body temperature generated in their body with “oxygen” taken from the earth’s atmosphere, being processed in a group of muscles to create motion inside the human as well as animal body. There are some “package” of TMC turn into SoME that has been successfully develop by mankind on earth surface until now, that is to say:
A. Heat of the Chemical Reaction
What the industrial revolution developed in Europe previously, was SoME caming from the conversion of “heat” of high temperature combustion fossil fuel into mechanical rotation, now popularly called the TMC, was first introduced to the world by James Watt (1736-1819) from England, United Kingdom, with “xy-package”. Here x = boiler required to boil water to get a “high pressure steam”, or steam with a “potential energy” by the combustion of solid fuel of various nature in or around the boiler. While y = cylinder with a moving piston inside along with connecting rod and a crankshaft, to convert the “potential energy” of steam in the boiler into mechanical energy of rotary motion.
Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900) from Belgium later introduced SoME, with “y- package” perse and spark ignition. Why latter package able to work, because the high temperature and pressure gas pushing the piston down can be achieved in second inside the cylinder just by igniting the mixture of benzene-vapour with air right inside the engine cylinder, without the need of a boiler of any kind.
The Lenoir SoEM improved by Otto from Germany, with the introduction carburettor and spark ignition, making “y-package” easier to use by the customer. Rudolf Diesel, Otto fellowman, also introduced “y package” having compression ignition burning liquid fuel injected directly into the engine cylinder. Latter engine bear the name of its inventor: “Diesel Engine”.
B. SoME of the Chemical Reaction
The “xy-package” introduced by James Watt (1736-1819), further developed later by changing cylinder along with piston, rod, and crankshaft, with a steam turbine to drive electric generator. Steam-Electric Power Station (SEPS) emerged burning fossil fuels (Solid, Liquid, Gas) been born in various countries around the world, from developed to underdeveloped countries, to produce large amout of electicity to run country’s economy.
The “y-package” introduced by Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900), also further developed later by changing cylinder along with piston, connecting rod, and crankshaft, with a gas-turbine to drive electric generator. Gas Turbine Power Station (GTPS) along with Combined-Cycle for Power Generation (CCPG) were emerged to improve thermal efficiency, burning natural gas to support country’s economy in order grow even faster. This is due the fact that GTPS and GGPG can be establised witin a short time to overcome electricity shortage from the generation side.
The “y-package” also beneficial to develop a powerful aircraft engines known: turbo-prop, torbo-jet, and turbo-fan engines, producing high pull or thrust measured in ton-metric. Such engine are highly demand by aircraft industries, and within a short period of time became the backbone of national an international air transport of many countries around the world servicing passenger and commodity transportation across islands, continents, and both, around the world.
C. SoME of Chemical Element
Beside a portion of “heat” been converted into motion, to become a Source of Mechanical Energy, abbreviated SoME, to be equivalent with Thermo Mechanic Conversion, abbreviated TMC, that had been introduced by industrial revolution implementing law of physics. So also “electricity” may be converted into motion by same law of physics, where SoME now be equivalent with Electro Mechanical Conversion (EMC). The result “xy-package” again be applied, but now: x = a chemical element generating electric energy, and y = the electric machine converting electricity into mechanical energy of rotation.
D. SoME of the Fuel Cell
Another SoME from chemical element generating electricity fast came forward, was the one introduced by John Bockris from the Technical Division of General Motors, United States of America. From the “xy-package”, x = fuel cells generating electricity by consuming hydrogen gas without combustion of any kind, and y = electrical machine to convert electricity into a mechanical energy of rotation.
E. Heat of a Nuclear Reaction
On September 26, 1905, Albert Einstein from the United States of America, publisized the famous “theory of relativity” along with the wellknown equation: E = mc² to the world. What Einstein wanted to tell people around the world the fact, that “energy” may be achieved with a complete destruction or annihilation of “matter”, or other way round. This also means that “matter” and “energy” interchangeable according to Einstein equation.
With his relativity theory, Einstein wanted to let people to know, that energy is abundant on earth surface, there is no energy shortage on the blue planet. The question raised at the time was how one could know about it? An experiment had to be done, and as soon as possible. On August 16, 1945, the first atom-bomb was tested by Manhattan Project in cooperation with the American Army, in white sands Proving Ground, Jonada del Muerto, 56 km South East Socorro, in New Mexico desert, successful.
In the year 1952, a hydrogen bomb was tested on Bikini Atoll belong to the Marshall Inlands, comprising 23 islands in the Pasific for the first time; and sucessful. The atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb did not get their “heat” from “chemical reaction”: the combustion of fossil fuels known to mankind from the early industrial revolution in Europe, but from what was later unveiled to be from the so called: ”nuclear-reaction”. The nuclear-reaction taking place in atom bomb called a nuclear fission reaction, because the nucleus of the uranium be split up by a neutron in the reaction process into two smaller elements, liberating enormous amount of heat causing atom bomb to explode. While the nuclear reaction taking place in a hydrogen-bomb called a nuclear fusion reaction, because two nucleus of lighter isotopes of hydrogen being combined by the reaction process to create a new elemen by the very high temperature of reaction process nearing the core of the sun, liberating enormous amount of heat causing the latter bomb to explode.
One must keep in mind, that a nuclear fission reaction emanate continuous radioactive radiation dangerous to mankind, while a nuclear fusion emanate no such radioactive radiation making it save for the mass production of electricity.
As a result of the splitting of heavy uranium atom, or the combimation two lighter isotopes of hydrogen, a portion of atom “mass” involved been annihilated from the universe, and directly turned into “heat”(calorie) following equation introduced by Einstein.
According to the theory of relativity forwarded by Albert Einstein, mankind around the world now aware of the two sources of “heat” on the earth surface: first the heat of “chemical reaction” or the combustion of: fossil fuels, woods, refuse, and so on; second the heat of “nuclear reaction”. The latter came from fission of a heavy atom element like uranium, etc., and fusion of two lighter atom elements, like isotopes of hydrogen, and so on. A chemical reaction does not cause any elemets weight change after the reaction process took place, but in nuclear reaction element weight happened after reaction process has took place. In latter reaction, matter annihilated from the universe be converted instantly into “heat (calorie)” according: E = mc².
The heat liberated by nucler reaction gave birth to Nuclear Power Station of Fission Reaction (NPSFiR) after World War II. From “xy-package”, x = Pressure Water Reactor (PWR), where “heat” is liberated by the fission reaction of heavy element, like uranioum, and so on; at the same time it boils water to get high pressure steam. While y = a pair of steam turbine generator to convert the potensial energy of steam pressure into electricity.
Lately, being developed uranium-free NPSFiR, a thorium reactor in several countries no longer emenates radioactive radiation to the environment. The thorium fuel cycle has the advantages over uranium, because the resource is abundance on, superior in physical and nuclear properties, good resistance to nuclear weapons proliferation. Molten salt will take the place of water as the primary coolant of the reactor to get rid of the leakage.
Nuclear Power Station of Fusion Reaction (NPSFuR) is now under construction in Cadarache, in Southern of France. From “xy-package”, x = Tokamak, “heat” been liberated by fusion reaction out of two nucleus of lighter hydrogen isotopes maintained against the wall by a strong magnetic field; and heat been transferred to a boiler to get steam potential energy. While y = a pair of steam turbine generator to convert the potensial energy of steam into electricity. The thermal energy density released in “nuclear reaction” is much higher than the thermal density released by fossil fuels in “chemical reaction”. The “energy density” of a fuel per unit mass called the “specific energy” of that fuel. As an example: uranium (breeder), it has a specific energy of 1,539,842,000 MJ/L, but gasoline (petrol) has a specific density of only 32.4 MJ/L.
This is the reason why the nuclear rection, either fission or fusion, more powerful in comparison with the chemical reaction known so far, were exhibited by the explotion of atom bomb and hydrogen bomb that fearing mankind around the world.
F. Cold Fusion Nuclear Reaction
From the Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann experiments in 1989, a small community of researchers further to investigate the cold fusion, now preferring the designation: Low-Energy Nuclear Rreactions (LENR). The latter become the source of hot water to generate energy potential of steam, to run generator to get electricity.
From “xy-package”, x = LENR producing the potensial energy of steam, and y = a pair of steam turbine with generator to generate electricity, much like a Steam-Electric Power Station. People dream the coming of future Cold Fusion Reaction Element (CFRE) as a battery to power: a motorcycle, vehicle, car, etc.; having its economic live fully in correspondence with the battery, such: 5 year, 10 year, etc.; and being recycled at the same time.
G. The Renewable Energy
a. The Solar Energy Farm
Another sources of energy now been implemented in many countries to get rid of atmospheric pollution around the world since the outbreak of industrial revolution in Europe, is the implementation of renewable energy sources. One example of renewable energy harnessed in several country around the world, is sunlight directly converted into electricity by photovoltaic converters. From xy-package, x = sunlight directly coming from the sun, and y = the photovoltaic convertor. Photovoltaic Power Station (PPS) was born to cultivate light energy from the sun, beginning from Europe, later spread to America, and Asia; from land to offshore, in areas where sun shines the most of the days in a year. PPS develop power from just 10 MW now already over 1000 MW in USA, with solar panels scattered over a large park.
A family harnessing sunlight from around the house from roof to the surrounding garden can now suffice electricity for own consumption. It seems that family only require electricity from the utility supply at night, if a battery installation to store electrical energy has not been installed yet. If this family produce electricity more than consumed during the day, the excess energy can be sold directly to the utility, causing payment of electrical energy consumption from utility for nighttime use been reduced.
b. The Wind Farm
Other renewable energy anyone can easily to notice is the wind. From xy-package, x = the flow of air molecules emerging from the earth surface being heated by the sun rays, and y = propeller blades to convert the kinetic energy air particles into the mechanical energy of rotation of an axle to drive an electrical generator, making use the law of aerodynamic.
Wind farm to harness wind energy beginning to emerge from Europe, spread into North America, and Asia; from land to offshore, where wind blows most of the days in a year. A wind farm is a tall tower of about 30 meter high, on top of which three or more propeller blades been installed to drive an electrical generator. A wind farm may consist of a number, tens, hunderds, even thousands towers with propeller driving electrical generators workin in parallel, to become as a windfarm Power Station.
c. The Solar Heat Farm
Heat from the sun to reach earth surface belong to renewable energy, known as Solar Thermal Energy (STE). Solaben is a Solar Power Station (SPS) of 200 MW now in service in Spain. Desertec is a proposed project to establish SPS of 100.000 MW for transmission to power hungry Europe harnessing STE from: Morocco, Jordan, Tunisia, Egypt, and Algeria in North African desert for conversion into electricity. What will be done in North Africa is to establish SEPS on the surface of earth with “heat” coming from the sun. From xy-package, x = a boiler where water is heated to get steam with high pressure having potential energy at the farm center surrounded by thousands controllable mirrors, and y = steam turbine driving electrical generator to convert steam potential energy into electricity.
Each of thousands mirrors in the SPS, must be carefully adjusted from sunrise to sunset, so the reflected heat from the sun with time will exactly be pointed to boiler at a given height from ground at the farm center. As the consequence, boiler temperature become very high making water inside boils violently producing stream pressure, the latter been used to turn a pair of turbine generator; a Solar Power Station is born.
d. Geothermal Electricity
Hot earth or geothermal near to earth surface, or around moutainous region in a country, as well as from active volcanos, belong to renewable energy that can be converted to electricity. What been done here is to establish a SEPS, but with “heat” coming from the depth of earth. From xy-package, x = a boiler where water is heated to get steam with high pressure having potential energy of the system in use: dry steam, or flash steam, or binary cycle; and y = steam turbine driving electrical generator to convert the steam potential energy into electricity.
To get steam with high pressure from the depth of earth, drilling is necessary to get the steam with high pressure from the source. If steam with high pressure does not emerge from the well after drilling been done, then fresh-water has to be injected into the heat source get steam with the pressure right from its source; a Geothermal Power Station (GPS) is born.
e. Hydropower for Electricity
Renewable energy widely used since the ancient times in various part of the world was the power of water or hydropower. Hydropower generated on earth, because the sun heat evaporates water to make clouds hanging in the sky. Winds carry these clouds to every direction across the sky around the globe, when they cooled down on their way fall back to earth as rains.
There are two categories of hydropower derived from the falling rain: the “potential energy”, due water gathered in a dented earth surface such as: basin, dam, lake, rivers, and so on, at an elevation above sea level; and the “kinetic energy” of drained water by the sloping river run.
The energy of first category depends on Q.l product, where Q (m3/sec.) the amount of water drained in each second, while l (m) the hight of falling water in meter. The energy of rushing water depends on the Q.v3 with product, where Q as has been mentioned earlier, while v (m/sec,) is the speed of flowing flowing water.
For the first category of the xy-package, x = Q.l product, and y = the water turbine in use to convert the potential energy of water into mechanical energy of turbine to turn an electric generator making use of hydrodynamic; a Hydroelectric Power Station is born.
Depend on the Q.l product, Hydroelectric Power Stations may be classified into: “very high power”, “high power”, “medium power”, “small power”, and “very small power”.The latter also called in Indonesia: “Mikrohidro”, or Micro Hydro Power Station.
For the second category the xy-package x = Q.v3 product, and y = the water turbine in use to convert the kinetic energy of water into mechanical energy of pelton wheel turbine to turn an electric generator making use hydrodynamic; Pelton Wheel Power Station (PWPS) is born.
f. The Wave Power
Strong wind blowing continuously over seas and oceans give rise water waves to run along their surfaces that end up on their shores. The rolling and travelling sea or ocean water toward their shores belong to renewable energy capable be converted into electricity. Some countries, especially the developed countries, already made use this energy to light up lighthouses as well as community of people living and working in remote location or far off places not far from the sea or ocean shore where utility power is not yet available.
From the xy-package, x = the rolling and travelling water waves, and y = mechanical energy of convertor making use of aerodynamic, or hydrodynamic, or both; a Wave Power Station (WPS) is born.
g. The Tidal Power
Tidal power is the energy inherent mainly with the orbital characteristics of the Earth-Moon system, and to a lesser extent with the Earth-Sun system. There are two energy category coming from the orbital characteristics Earth-Moon and Earth-Sun systems: the kinetic energy and the potential energy. Stream turbines been used to harvest energy of moving water to drive generator to get electricity; while the potential energy be captured by land constrictions such as straits or inlets that can create high velocities at specific sites having power turbine turning electric generator to get electricity. These turbines can be horizontal, vertical, open, or ducted, and typically placed near the bottom of the water column. From the xy-package, x = the kinetic or potential energy of tidal water, and y = mechanical energy of turbine making use of hydrodynamic; a Tidal Power Station (TPS) is born.
h. The Power Undersea Current
The under water current from the sea to ocean also belong to the renewable energy capable for convertion into electricity. This kind of energy is keenly been studied in developed countries for harvesting the world’s most green energy for getting rid of atmospheric pollution. From the xy-package, x = Q.v3 product of speeding water molecules at the bottom of the sea or ocean, and y = the water turbine been use to convert the kinetic energy of under water current into mechanical energy of water turbine to turn electrical generator using hydrodynamic; an Undersea Current Power Station (UCPS) is born.
i. Sea Water Thermal Power
The sea or ocean water temperature (thermal) difference of the surface and at some depth may be exploitated to generate electricity, also belong to renewable source of energy. What been done here is to establish a sort of SEPS, but with “heat” emerging from the sea or ocean water thermal difference. From the xy-package, x = the sea or ocean water thermal difference, and y = a low temperwture steam turbine turning electrical generator; Ocean Thermal Energy Power Station (OTEPS) is born.
j. Lightning Power
Lightning striking in between clouds in the sky and from clouds to earth, are undoubtedly a truly very large electrical power, because the voltage is very high measured in million volts (V) and the current is high measured in thousands amps (A); can turn a big tree into charcoal.
Bare in mind lighning is also a thunder; and the difference: the first is what one see with the eyes, while the second what one hear with the ear. Having such an enormous voltage, a lighning can strike anywhere, between clouds if their charges are the opposite, or from to clouds to earth as well.
Lighning between clouds very difficult to catch, but the one striking to earth can be captured to seize its electrical power. Various experiments has been conducted in developed countries and as in Indonesia, to fish the litghning power by sending small rocket having metallic tails attached to the proposed lightning core to get the electrical energy.
Although lighning power is extremely short time, but application might worth be used to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen, heating water, and others. It is not yen known when a Lightning Electric Power Station (LEPS) will be born.
From what so far explained, it became clear, that “heat” derived from chemical reaction combustion of fossil fuels: solid, liquid, and gaseous inside of TMC or SoME packages billions in number around the world, extracted right from the earth’s belly, became the “prime cause” of atmospheric air pollution blanketing the blue planet. Ever since outbreak of industrial revolution in Europe more than two centuries, TMC or SoME packages also get developed and gain in number. The pollution get worsen with the highest “thermal efficiency” acquired of about 25%, with the rest 75% “heat” of fuel combustion to raise the air temperature around.
If biofuel and fuel from biomas used to get “heat”, pollution of sulfuric element in earth atmosphere eliminated, but the thermal efficiency of TMC or SoME will remain the same. It seems TMC or SoME burning fossil fuels must be eliminated from earth surface completely to get rid air pollution of earth atmosphere by the “combustion of fossil fuels”.
On the other side “chemical element” working with “electric motor” has a bright future acts as Electro Mechanic Conversion (EMC) or SoME, because the “chemical element” has a lot of choice with variety selection, and does not pollute air in the earth atmosphere.
Also same with “fuel cells” consuming hydrogen fuel to work with an “electric motor” acts as EMC or SoME, to produce mechanical energy for use in various industry and transportation.
One must note, that the “electrical efficiency” of the electric motor aroud 85%, more than three times of an ICE. Having developed the correct pair of “chemical elements” to work with an “electric motor”, it is not necessary to drill well into the earth’s belly thousands meter, because chemical elements along with electrical motor can be acquired right from depth less than 100 meter.
On leading people in the South East Asian Region migrate from TMC to EMC to get SoME with the “chemical element” as the prime source energy, a pilot program beginning right from the villages has ti be inisiated.
Religious teenagers from Mosques and other Holly Houses may be encouraged by a coach from the respective belief to do reseach on variety electrolits of natural origin and their development with right electrodes to generate electric potensial. ****
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